Mental Ability/Reasoning (Verbal) : Analogy
Meaning of Analogy
Analogy means ‘Similar items’. There is three types of Analogy
(a) Number Analogy
(b) Letter Analogy
(c) Word Analogy
In questions based on analogy, a pair of numbers/letters/words is given that have certain relationship between them. This pair is followed by a third numbers/letters/words. The candidate is required to identify the relationship between the pair of numbers/letters/words given and find out the FOURTH numbers/letters/wore such that the relationship between the third and the fourth numbers/letters/words is similar to the relationship that exists between the first and the second numbers/letters/words.
Typical relationships between the numbers in a given pair can be any of the following :
One number is a multiple of the other.
One number is the square or square root of the other.
One number is the cube or cube root of the other.
The two numbers can be consecutive, even, odd or prime numbers.
Example 1: 3 : 81 : : 6 : ?
Solution. (a) n : n4 relation here (3) and (3)4 = (81)
Similarly, (6) and (6)4 = 1296
Example 2: Find the missing term 10 : 100 : : ? : 121
Solution. (b) Square of first term is the second term.
102 = 100, so 112 = 121
The questions based on letter analogy are similar to number analogy. Here, the questions are based on the relationship between two groups of letters on each side of the sign : : . Normally, three pairs of letters are given followed by a question mark where the fourth pair of letters is supposed to come.
Example 3 : Find the missing term : YWZX : USVT : : MKNL : ?
Solution. (b) Alphabets are used in reverse order. In the first term, the order of alphabet is 2, 4, 1 and 3 and in the second term, the order is 6, 8, 5 and 7. So, the missing term is IGJH.
Example 4 : ? : I K M O : : Q S U W : YA C E
Solution: (a) In each group, one letter is skipped between every two consecutive letters. So, the missing term will be ACEG.
In word analogy questions there is a certain relationship between the two given words on one side of ’ : : ’ and one word is given on the other side. Students are asked to find the correct alternative that has same relationship with that word.
Example 5 : Sailor : Ship : : Lawyer : ?
Solution. (c) ‘Sailor’ works at ‘Ship’, similarly ‘Lawyer’ works at ‘Court’.
Example 6: Love : Hate : : Create : ?
Solution. (c) ‘Hate’ is just opposite of ‘Love’. Similarly, ‘Destroy’ is just opposite of ‘Create’.
Directions: In each of the following Questions, there is a certain relationship between two given words on one side of : : and one word is given on another side of : : while another word is to be found from the given alternatives, having the same relation with this word as the words of the given pair bear : choose the correct alternatives.
1. Aeroplane : Cockpit : : Train : ?
ANSWERS 1. (d)
EXPLANATIONS 1. As the pilot of an aeroplane sits in the cockpit, the driver of a train works in the engine.
2. Amnesia : Memory : : Paralysis : ?
ANSWERS 2. (a)
EXPLANATIONS 2. First is the name given to the state of loss of the second.
3. Meningitis : Brain : : Cirrhosis : ?
ANSWERS 3. (c)
EXPLANATIONS 3. First is a disease which affects the second.
4. Book : Publisher : : Film : ?
ANSWERS 4. (a)
EXPLANATIONS 4. The production of first is done by the second.
5. Forecast : Future : : Regret : ?
ANSWERS 5. (c)
EXPLANATIONS 5. Forecast is for future happenings and Regret is for past actions.
6. Influenza : Virus : : Typhoid : ?
ANSWERS 6. (d)
EXPLANATIONS 6. First is a disease caused by the second.
7. Haemoglobin : Iron : : Chlorophyll : ?
ANSWERS 7. (b)
EXPLANATIONS 7. Second is the chief constituent of the first.
8. Radio : Listener : : Film : ?
EXPLANATIONS 8. First is meant for the second.
ANSWERS 8. (c)
9. Milk : Emulsion : : Butter : ?
ANSWERS 9. (d)
EXPLANATIONS 9. Milk is an emulsion, while butter is a gel.
10. Spider : Insect : : Crocodile : ?
ANSWERS 10. (a)
EXPLANATIONS 10. Second denotes the class to which the first belongs.