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Analogy and Classification - Notes | Study English Olympiad for Class 6 - Class 6

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Analogy
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Analogy

The analogy is a comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification. In a verbal analogy question, a pair of words/phrases are given. You have to determine the exact relationship among these words/phrases. The relationship is always precise and unambiguous. Then from among the given alternatives, you have to choose a pair of words that best exemplifies the relationship of the original pair. We understand analogy as the act of matching one set of relationships with another set of relationships.  For example, the analogy "I feel like fish out of water" means I am out of my comfort zone.  Here, I match myself to fish, and water to my current environment.
The purpose of an analogy is to provide insight that would otherwise not be readily or vividly apparent. Saying "I feel like a fish out of water" clearly conveys an image and a feeling that may not be easily summarised using a direct description. It is most useful when the connection it indicates is unexpected.

Classification

The purpose of Classification is to divide into groups based on essential characteristics. A cherry tree and a peach tree have similar flowers and fruit, and so are taxonomically in the rose family. It is most useful in identifying patterns and groupings and most interesting when one is seeking the delineation of boundaries between groups.
In this part, a word and its related word is given, and then another word with four options is given. Such that we have to find out the related word from the option.
E.g.:- Phone: Cellphone :: Computer ::___?____
(a) Speaker
(b) Keyboard
(c) Theatre
(d) Laptop
In this (d) Laptop is the answer. Since Cellphone is the derivative of Phone, similarly Laptop is the derivative of Computer.
‘Analogy’ means ‘Similarity’. In this type of question, two objects related in some ways are given and another similar relationship has to be identified.

Types of Questions

(i) Analogy and Classification - Notes | Study English Olympiad for Class 6 - Class 6
In this type, objects I and II, related in some way are given and object III is also given. We have to find out object IV from the alternative provided which bears the same relationship with object III as objects I and II are related.
(ii) Analogy and Classification - Notes | Study English Olympiad for Class 6 - Class 6
In this type, we have to find the pair of objects as objects III & IV which bears the same relationship as objects I & II are related.

Antonym Relationship

Deep : Shallow :: Freedom : _____
(a) Democracy
(b) Convict
(c) Prison
(d) Discipline

Correct Answer is Option (c)
‘Deep’ is the antonym of ‘Shallow’ while ‘Freedom’ is the antonym of ‘prison’.

Synonym Relationship

Genuine : Authentic :: Mirage : ? 
(a) Image 
(b) Transpiration 
(c) Reflection
(d) Illusion

Correct Answer is Option (d)
‘Illusion’ is the synonym of ‘Mirage’.

Individual and Group/Class

Moon : Satellite :: Earth : ?
(a) Sun
(b) Planet
(c) Solar system
(d) Asteroid

Correct Answer is Option (b)
Moon is a satellite and Earth is a planet.

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