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**ANGULAR MOMENTUM**

The classical definition of angular momentum L= r X p depends on six numbers r_{x}, r_{y}, p_{x}, p_{y} and p_{z}

Translating this into quantum mechanical terms, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle tells us that it is not possible for all six of these numbers to be measured simultaneously with arbitrary precision .Therefore , there are limits to what can be known ormeasuredabout a particles angular momentum . It turns out that the best that one can do is to simultaneously measure both the angular momentum vectors magnitude and its component along one axis.

Mathematically, angular momentum in quantum mechanics is defined like momentum not as a quantity but as an operator on the wave function.

L= r X p

Where and p are position and momentum operators respectively.

**Q. Show that **

**Proof: **

The II^{nd} term become zero because the operator is commute. A function that are dependent on three

co-ordinates x,y,z is always given the value zero because commutation is possible in three inter dependent co-ordinate.

Ans.

**VALANCE BOND THEORY**

Valance Bond Theory was the first quantum mechanical theory of chemical bond proposed by **Heither** and **London** in 1927, Slater and Pauling in 1930. It is collectively known as HLSP or HSPL. The theory propose that:

Covalent bond is formed by the shared pair of electron, i.e. Lewis concept. The theory makes the perfect pairing of approximation in which it is assumed that structures with electron paired in all possible way dominated the wave function of the molecule.

Let the 2 electron of H_{2} designated by (1) and (2) and the 2 nuclei a and b. the wave function of the molecule:

Ï• are the atomic orbitals;Ïˆ_{1 }is the wave function corresponding to situation, where electron (1) on the atomic orbital centered on the nucleus (a) and electron (2) is on the atomic orbital centered on nucleus B. Heilter and London remove C_{1} and C_{2} by putting a common value of N as normalization function.

Bonding M.O.=

Antibonding M.O.=

Let us normalize we get, the value of

Similarly, we get normalization constant

Normalized wave functions:

** Q.Write down the valence bond wave function for HF molecule (assuming that it is formed from 1s orbital of H and 2p _{z} orbital of F) in the following three cases.**

** (i)HF is purely covalent. (ii) HF is purely ionic. (iii) HF is 80% civalent and 20% ionic.**

** Sol.** @

Total probability (if inspection is 100)

In ionic Î¨, probability=

Operator are not fixed for an eigen value equation and a function is not always eigen function, both are independent.

**Schrodinger Wave Equation**

Schrodinger equation in a eigen value equation, i.e. the wave function is an eigen function and the energy is an eigen value of the hamiltanian operator.

Thus suggests a coresponce between the hamiltanian operator and the energy and this is the fundamental approach to the formation of quantum mechanism.

To prove Schrodinger equation quantum mechanically. An eigen value equation:

** The eigenvalue equation:**For the linear operator Î± , consider the equation

Where a_{n} is an arbitrary complex number. Equation(30) represents an eigenvalue equation; is said to be an eigenket of the operator Î±, a_{n} being the corresponding eigenvalues. It can be easily seen that (where c is an arbitrary complex number) is also an eigenket belonging to the same eigenvalue a_{n} Now, if there is more than one ket (and they are not linearly dependent on each other ) belonging to the same eigenvalue, ie. If

.............(31)

....................(32)

Then the state is said to be a degenerate state, if there are â€˜gâ€™ linearly independent kets belonging to the same eigenvalue then the state is said to be g- fold degenerate. For the sake of simplicitly, let us consider a two-fold degenerate state describe by equation (31) and (32). If we multiply equation (31) by C_{1} and equation (32) by c_{2} and add we would get

here Implying that the linear combination is also an eigenket belonging to the same eigenvalu.

**Orthogonality of eigenfunctions:** When Î± is real, it can easily be shown that all the eigenvalues are real and for two different eigenvalues the corresponding eigenfunctions are necessarily orthogonal, i.e.

for ....(33)

Further, one can always normalize the kets and choose an appropriate linear combination for the kets belonging to a degenerate state such that

...........(34)

The proof is very simple, Premultiplying equation (30) by we get

Now, is always real and not a null ket [otherwise equation (30) has no meaning]. Further, since Î± is real

Implying that is also real and hence a_{n} must be real. Father, in order to prove equation (33) we consider.

................(35)

Also, ..............(36)

If we put , then

Also,

Because a_{2 }is real. Thus

......(37)

Premultiplying equation (35) by and postmultiplying equation (37) by gives

Which immediately gives the orthogonality given by equation (33)

Since the formalism is symmetrical with respect to bras and kets we also have the iegen value equation

Where are the eigenbras and b_{n} the corresponding eigenvalues. It can be easily seen that when Î± is a real operator and if is an eigenket, then is an eigenbra belonging to the same eigenvalue. Equation (37) tells us that is an eigenbra of the operator Î± belonging to the same eigenvalue a_{2} .

**The completeness condition:** We have just stated that the eigenkets of an observable from a complete set. Let denote these eigenkets and let denote an arbitrary ket. Thus

Where âˆ‘ denote a sum over the discrete states and an integration over the continuum states. Since the eigenkets can be assumed to form an orthogonal set we have

..........(38)

Thus, ...............(39)

Since, the above equation holds for an arbitrary ket , the quantity inside the curely brackets must be a unit operator

Which is usually reffered to the completeness condition. The above equation may be compared with the completeness condition of the Schrodinger wavefunctions

**HERMITIAN ADJOINT OF OPERATORS**

Here under operator and transpose change function.

If , Then it is Hermitian.

If A is Hermitian

If p_{x} is Hermitian

This shows px is Hermitian and

Now prove it,

**General property:**

A is Hermitian.

A is antihermitian.

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