Aqua-culture 1 Notes | EduRev

: Aqua-culture 1 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Aquaculture, Fisheries, 
Poverty and Food Security
Working Paper 2011-65
Page 2


Aquaculture, Fisheries, 
Poverty and Food Security
Working Paper 2011-65
1
Acknowledgements
Thanks to: Anne Delaporte (WorldFish Center) for conducting analysis of trade and food balance data; Joeri 
Scholtens (Free University of Amsterdam) and Marie-Caroline Badjeck (WorldFish Center) for allowing me 
to use their unpublished analysis of fisheries dependence indicators, derived from a recent UK-government 
funded project (NERC Quest_Fish www.quest-fish.org.uk); and Nicole Franz (OECD, now FAO) for comments 
on structure and content of an earlier draft. The sections on governance reform in capture fisheries are drawn 
from an article which I co-authored with Blake Ratner (WorldFish Center), who is the senior author; it is now 
in press with the journal Development Policy Review. Other WorldFish Center colleagues who provided data, 
bibliographic sources or useful advice include Ben Belton, Malcolm Beveridge, Christophe Bene (now at the 
Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, U.K.), Khonder Murshed-e-Jahan, Nozomi Kawarazuka, David Mills 
and Shakuntala Thilsted. 
 
This study was commissioned and funded by the Fisheries Policies Division in the Trade and Agriculture 
Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris. I thank Carl-
Christian Schmidt, Head of the Fisheries Policies Division, for support to completing the work. The opinions 
expressed and arguments employed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official 
views of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.
Edward H Allison
Principal Scientist
Policy, Economics and Social Sciences
The WorldFish Center
Penang, Malaysia
Email: e.allison@cgiar.org
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
Page 3


Aquaculture, Fisheries, 
Poverty and Food Security
Working Paper 2011-65
1
Acknowledgements
Thanks to: Anne Delaporte (WorldFish Center) for conducting analysis of trade and food balance data; Joeri 
Scholtens (Free University of Amsterdam) and Marie-Caroline Badjeck (WorldFish Center) for allowing me 
to use their unpublished analysis of fisheries dependence indicators, derived from a recent UK-government 
funded project (NERC Quest_Fish www.quest-fish.org.uk); and Nicole Franz (OECD, now FAO) for comments 
on structure and content of an earlier draft. The sections on governance reform in capture fisheries are drawn 
from an article which I co-authored with Blake Ratner (WorldFish Center), who is the senior author; it is now 
in press with the journal Development Policy Review. Other WorldFish Center colleagues who provided data, 
bibliographic sources or useful advice include Ben Belton, Malcolm Beveridge, Christophe Bene (now at the 
Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, U.K.), Khonder Murshed-e-Jahan, Nozomi Kawarazuka, David Mills 
and Shakuntala Thilsted. 
 
This study was commissioned and funded by the Fisheries Policies Division in the Trade and Agriculture 
Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris. I thank Carl-
Christian Schmidt, Head of the Fisheries Policies Division, for support to completing the work. The opinions 
expressed and arguments employed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official 
views of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.
Edward H Allison
Principal Scientist
Policy, Economics and Social Sciences
The WorldFish Center
Penang, Malaysia
Email: e.allison@cgiar.org
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
2
Table of Contents
List of Tables  ............................................................................................................................................ 3
List of Figures  ............................................................................................................................... ............ 3
Glossary  ............................................................................................................................... ..................... 4
Acronyms and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 5
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................... 6
Aims, rationale and structure ............................................................................................................ 6
Pathways linking fisheries and aquaculture to poverty and food security............................................. 6
Impacts of recent policy reform in fisheries and development investment in aquaculture ..................... 7
Policy recommendations .................................................................................................................. 9
1. Fisheries and aquaculture reform and the global food security agenda ................................................... 12
1.1 The need for a food and nutrition security orientation in fisheries and aquaculture policy .................. 12
1.2 Food security at the top of the development agenda  ...................................................................... 13
1.3 Representation of fisheries and aquaculture in global food security initiatives ................................... 14
2. The contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security ............................... 15
2.1 GDP and trade .............................................................................................................................. 17
2.1.1. Contribution to GDP ............................................................................................................ 17
2.1.2. Contribution to trade ............................................................................................................ 17
2.2 Employment and growth linkages ................................................................................................... 18
2.3 Nutrition ....................................................................................................................................... 19
2.4 Data weaknesses and their implications for policy ........................................................................... 22
3. Policy reform in fisheries and aquaculture: poverty and food security implications ................................... 25
3.1 The transition to rights-based fishing: will the additional wealth reach the poor? ............................... 26
3.1.1. Failing fisheries and the need to reform fishing access rights ................................................. 26
3.1.2. Models of fishery sector reform. emphasis on wealth and welfare ........................................... 26
3.1.3. Fisheries governance reform: are there documented impacts on poverty and food security? ... 31
3.1.4. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 33
3.2 Does the globalization of fish trade benefit the poor? ...................................................................... 34
3.2.1 Trade, poverty reduction and food security. global aggregate analysis ..................................... 34
3.2.2 Trade, poverty reduction and food security. case studies from Lake Victoria and Bangladesh ... 37
3.2.3 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 38
3.3 Commercial versus small-farms and fish for health or wealth. debates in aquaculture  ...................... 39
3.3.1. Aquaculture in Africa ............................................................................................................ 39
3.3.2. Aquaculture in Asia .............................................................................................................. 40
3.3.3 Aquaculture, the fishmeal industry and export of small-pelagics: do they reduce the supply 
of fish to the poor? ........................................................................................................................ 41
3.3.4 Aquaculture: pathways to poverty, food security and environmental sustainability .................... 42
4. Improving the contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security: 
policy recommendations  ......................................................................................................................... 45
4.1. Strive for policy coherence ........................................................................................................... 45
4.2 Avoid blueprints: fit reforms to context and sequence them appropriately  ....................................... 48
4.2.1 Matching reform goals to existing sector role and economic potential ..................................... 48
4.2.2 Sequencing development interventions .................................................................................. 50
4.3 Invest in evidence-based political economy analysis ....................................................................... 51
4.4 Engage stakeholders in dialogue over reform goals ......................................................................... 53
4.5 Build on what already works .......................................................................................................... 53
5. References ................................................................................................................................. 56
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
Page 4


Aquaculture, Fisheries, 
Poverty and Food Security
Working Paper 2011-65
1
Acknowledgements
Thanks to: Anne Delaporte (WorldFish Center) for conducting analysis of trade and food balance data; Joeri 
Scholtens (Free University of Amsterdam) and Marie-Caroline Badjeck (WorldFish Center) for allowing me 
to use their unpublished analysis of fisheries dependence indicators, derived from a recent UK-government 
funded project (NERC Quest_Fish www.quest-fish.org.uk); and Nicole Franz (OECD, now FAO) for comments 
on structure and content of an earlier draft. The sections on governance reform in capture fisheries are drawn 
from an article which I co-authored with Blake Ratner (WorldFish Center), who is the senior author; it is now 
in press with the journal Development Policy Review. Other WorldFish Center colleagues who provided data, 
bibliographic sources or useful advice include Ben Belton, Malcolm Beveridge, Christophe Bene (now at the 
Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, U.K.), Khonder Murshed-e-Jahan, Nozomi Kawarazuka, David Mills 
and Shakuntala Thilsted. 
 
This study was commissioned and funded by the Fisheries Policies Division in the Trade and Agriculture 
Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris. I thank Carl-
Christian Schmidt, Head of the Fisheries Policies Division, for support to completing the work. The opinions 
expressed and arguments employed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official 
views of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.
Edward H Allison
Principal Scientist
Policy, Economics and Social Sciences
The WorldFish Center
Penang, Malaysia
Email: e.allison@cgiar.org
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
2
Table of Contents
List of Tables  ............................................................................................................................................ 3
List of Figures  ............................................................................................................................... ............ 3
Glossary  ............................................................................................................................... ..................... 4
Acronyms and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 5
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................... 6
Aims, rationale and structure ............................................................................................................ 6
Pathways linking fisheries and aquaculture to poverty and food security............................................. 6
Impacts of recent policy reform in fisheries and development investment in aquaculture ..................... 7
Policy recommendations .................................................................................................................. 9
1. Fisheries and aquaculture reform and the global food security agenda ................................................... 12
1.1 The need for a food and nutrition security orientation in fisheries and aquaculture policy .................. 12
1.2 Food security at the top of the development agenda  ...................................................................... 13
1.3 Representation of fisheries and aquaculture in global food security initiatives ................................... 14
2. The contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security ............................... 15
2.1 GDP and trade .............................................................................................................................. 17
2.1.1. Contribution to GDP ............................................................................................................ 17
2.1.2. Contribution to trade ............................................................................................................ 17
2.2 Employment and growth linkages ................................................................................................... 18
2.3 Nutrition ....................................................................................................................................... 19
2.4 Data weaknesses and their implications for policy ........................................................................... 22
3. Policy reform in fisheries and aquaculture: poverty and food security implications ................................... 25
3.1 The transition to rights-based fishing: will the additional wealth reach the poor? ............................... 26
3.1.1. Failing fisheries and the need to reform fishing access rights ................................................. 26
3.1.2. Models of fishery sector reform. emphasis on wealth and welfare ........................................... 26
3.1.3. Fisheries governance reform: are there documented impacts on poverty and food security? ... 31
3.1.4. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 33
3.2 Does the globalization of fish trade benefit the poor? ...................................................................... 34
3.2.1 Trade, poverty reduction and food security. global aggregate analysis ..................................... 34
3.2.2 Trade, poverty reduction and food security. case studies from Lake Victoria and Bangladesh ... 37
3.2.3 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 38
3.3 Commercial versus small-farms and fish for health or wealth. debates in aquaculture  ...................... 39
3.3.1. Aquaculture in Africa ............................................................................................................ 39
3.3.2. Aquaculture in Asia .............................................................................................................. 40
3.3.3 Aquaculture, the fishmeal industry and export of small-pelagics: do they reduce the supply 
of fish to the poor? ........................................................................................................................ 41
3.3.4 Aquaculture: pathways to poverty, food security and environmental sustainability .................... 42
4. Improving the contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security: 
policy recommendations  ......................................................................................................................... 45
4.1. Strive for policy coherence ........................................................................................................... 45
4.2 Avoid blueprints: fit reforms to context and sequence them appropriately  ....................................... 48
4.2.1 Matching reform goals to existing sector role and economic potential ..................................... 48
4.2.2 Sequencing development interventions .................................................................................. 50
4.3 Invest in evidence-based political economy analysis ....................................................................... 51
4.4 Engage stakeholders in dialogue over reform goals ......................................................................... 53
4.5 Build on what already works .......................................................................................................... 53
5. References ................................................................................................................................. 56
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
3
List of Figures 
List of Tables 
Table 1: Contribution of fish production to Gross Domestic Product and Agricultural Gross Domestic Product. 
Source: Scholtens and Badjeck, 2010. ...................................................................................... 17
Table 2: The global export value of selected agricultural commodities in 2007 in $US billion. (Source: FAOStat 
and FAO TradeSTAT 2007) ........................................................................................................ 18
Table 3: Measures of importance of the fisheries sector to employment and nutrition, derived from two 
sources: (i. FAO statistical databases. used to calculate national fishery dependency indices in 
Allison et al (2009), and as calculated from the WorldFish/FAO ‘Big numbers’ project (BNP, 2009), 
and from the QUEST_FISH project (Scholtens & Badjeck, 2010) ................................................. 23
Table 4: Comparison of the wealth-based and welfare models in small-scale fisheries. (Source: modified from 
Bene et al., (2010a)) ................................................................................................................. 30
Table 5: Overview of links between trade and food security in 11 countries (Kurien, 2004) .......................... 34
Table 6: Origin and average price of farmed and wild fish species from 15 markets across Bangladesh 
(adapted from Little et al., 2009) ............................................................................................... 41
Table 7: Summary of observed links between poverty and aquaculture development in developing countries, 
derived from Stevenson & Irz, (2009) and literature cited therein, supplemented by more recent 
work at the WorldFish Center. ................................................................................................... 43
Table 8: Cross-sectoral issues to consider in developing coherent fishery and aquaculture policies that 
support poverty reduction and food security .............................................................................. 46
Table 9: Matching pro-poor and pro-food security fisheries policies to resource characteristics and national 
political-economic context ........................................................................................................ 49
Figure 1: Like other food commodities, fish prices globally showed a ‘spike’ in 2007-8.  
(Source: FAO, 2011) ................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 2: Aquaculture and poverty reduction: potential impact pathways (Source: Stevensen & Irz, 2009) ... 16
Figure 3: Global distribution of Fish protein consumption, 2005-2007 average, from FAO food balance  
sheets (Source: FAO, 2011) ...................................................................................................... 19
Figure 4: Relative and absolute contributions of fish to protein consumption in the 30 countries with the 
highest proportion of fish in the animal-based part of their diet. .................................................. 20
Figure 4a: Fish protein as a percent of animal protein consumption (%) ..................................................... 20
Figure 4b: Total protein consumption (g/capita/day) ................................................................................. 20
Figure 5: Index of fisheries dependency, based on proportion on contribution to animal protein (nutrition 
indicator) labour force involved in fisheries and aquaculture (employment) and contribution to GDP 
and export revenues (macro-economic indicator) . Data are from re-analysis of national statistics, 
carried out by BNP (2009) and Quest_Fish (www.quest-fish.org.uk),  
(Scholtens & Badjeck, 2010). .................................................................................................... 24
Figure 6: Gordon-Shaefer bioeconomic surplus production model for exploited fish stocks ........................ 27
Figure 7: Forecasted supply of coastal fish in the Western Pacific, relative to projected need in 2030  
(Bell et al., 2009) ...................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 8: Example time series (1976-2007) of fish consumption (g/capita/yr) and trade ($ per capita) for 
selected Least Developed or Low Income Food Deficit Countries. Fish consumption = red line;  
export values = blue line. Data source. FAOSTAT, accessed Dec 2010 ........................................ 35
Figure 9: Real unit prices of internationally traded seafood for developed and developing countries.  
Prices are in 2005 constant dollars adjusted by US GDP deflator  
(Source: Smith et al., 2010 – supplementary material) ................................................................ 37
Figure 10: Generalized sequencing of development activities to improve fisheries and aquaculture ............. 51
Figure 11: A policy-relevant research agenda to support the improved contribution of fisheries and 
aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security (WorldFish Center, 2011) .............................. 52
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
Page 5


Aquaculture, Fisheries, 
Poverty and Food Security
Working Paper 2011-65
1
Acknowledgements
Thanks to: Anne Delaporte (WorldFish Center) for conducting analysis of trade and food balance data; Joeri 
Scholtens (Free University of Amsterdam) and Marie-Caroline Badjeck (WorldFish Center) for allowing me 
to use their unpublished analysis of fisheries dependence indicators, derived from a recent UK-government 
funded project (NERC Quest_Fish www.quest-fish.org.uk); and Nicole Franz (OECD, now FAO) for comments 
on structure and content of an earlier draft. The sections on governance reform in capture fisheries are drawn 
from an article which I co-authored with Blake Ratner (WorldFish Center), who is the senior author; it is now 
in press with the journal Development Policy Review. Other WorldFish Center colleagues who provided data, 
bibliographic sources or useful advice include Ben Belton, Malcolm Beveridge, Christophe Bene (now at the 
Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, U.K.), Khonder Murshed-e-Jahan, Nozomi Kawarazuka, David Mills 
and Shakuntala Thilsted. 
 
This study was commissioned and funded by the Fisheries Policies Division in the Trade and Agriculture 
Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris. I thank Carl-
Christian Schmidt, Head of the Fisheries Policies Division, for support to completing the work. The opinions 
expressed and arguments employed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official 
views of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.
Edward H Allison
Principal Scientist
Policy, Economics and Social Sciences
The WorldFish Center
Penang, Malaysia
Email: e.allison@cgiar.org
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
2
Table of Contents
List of Tables  ............................................................................................................................................ 3
List of Figures  ............................................................................................................................... ............ 3
Glossary  ............................................................................................................................... ..................... 4
Acronyms and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 5
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................... 6
Aims, rationale and structure ............................................................................................................ 6
Pathways linking fisheries and aquaculture to poverty and food security............................................. 6
Impacts of recent policy reform in fisheries and development investment in aquaculture ..................... 7
Policy recommendations .................................................................................................................. 9
1. Fisheries and aquaculture reform and the global food security agenda ................................................... 12
1.1 The need for a food and nutrition security orientation in fisheries and aquaculture policy .................. 12
1.2 Food security at the top of the development agenda  ...................................................................... 13
1.3 Representation of fisheries and aquaculture in global food security initiatives ................................... 14
2. The contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security ............................... 15
2.1 GDP and trade .............................................................................................................................. 17
2.1.1. Contribution to GDP ............................................................................................................ 17
2.1.2. Contribution to trade ............................................................................................................ 17
2.2 Employment and growth linkages ................................................................................................... 18
2.3 Nutrition ....................................................................................................................................... 19
2.4 Data weaknesses and their implications for policy ........................................................................... 22
3. Policy reform in fisheries and aquaculture: poverty and food security implications ................................... 25
3.1 The transition to rights-based fishing: will the additional wealth reach the poor? ............................... 26
3.1.1. Failing fisheries and the need to reform fishing access rights ................................................. 26
3.1.2. Models of fishery sector reform. emphasis on wealth and welfare ........................................... 26
3.1.3. Fisheries governance reform: are there documented impacts on poverty and food security? ... 31
3.1.4. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 33
3.2 Does the globalization of fish trade benefit the poor? ...................................................................... 34
3.2.1 Trade, poverty reduction and food security. global aggregate analysis ..................................... 34
3.2.2 Trade, poverty reduction and food security. case studies from Lake Victoria and Bangladesh ... 37
3.2.3 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 38
3.3 Commercial versus small-farms and fish for health or wealth. debates in aquaculture  ...................... 39
3.3.1. Aquaculture in Africa ............................................................................................................ 39
3.3.2. Aquaculture in Asia .............................................................................................................. 40
3.3.3 Aquaculture, the fishmeal industry and export of small-pelagics: do they reduce the supply 
of fish to the poor? ........................................................................................................................ 41
3.3.4 Aquaculture: pathways to poverty, food security and environmental sustainability .................... 42
4. Improving the contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security: 
policy recommendations  ......................................................................................................................... 45
4.1. Strive for policy coherence ........................................................................................................... 45
4.2 Avoid blueprints: fit reforms to context and sequence them appropriately  ....................................... 48
4.2.1 Matching reform goals to existing sector role and economic potential ..................................... 48
4.2.2 Sequencing development interventions .................................................................................. 50
4.3 Invest in evidence-based political economy analysis ....................................................................... 51
4.4 Engage stakeholders in dialogue over reform goals ......................................................................... 53
4.5 Build on what already works .......................................................................................................... 53
5. References ................................................................................................................................. 56
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
3
List of Figures 
List of Tables 
Table 1: Contribution of fish production to Gross Domestic Product and Agricultural Gross Domestic Product. 
Source: Scholtens and Badjeck, 2010. ...................................................................................... 17
Table 2: The global export value of selected agricultural commodities in 2007 in $US billion. (Source: FAOStat 
and FAO TradeSTAT 2007) ........................................................................................................ 18
Table 3: Measures of importance of the fisheries sector to employment and nutrition, derived from two 
sources: (i. FAO statistical databases. used to calculate national fishery dependency indices in 
Allison et al (2009), and as calculated from the WorldFish/FAO ‘Big numbers’ project (BNP, 2009), 
and from the QUEST_FISH project (Scholtens & Badjeck, 2010) ................................................. 23
Table 4: Comparison of the wealth-based and welfare models in small-scale fisheries. (Source: modified from 
Bene et al., (2010a)) ................................................................................................................. 30
Table 5: Overview of links between trade and food security in 11 countries (Kurien, 2004) .......................... 34
Table 6: Origin and average price of farmed and wild fish species from 15 markets across Bangladesh 
(adapted from Little et al., 2009) ............................................................................................... 41
Table 7: Summary of observed links between poverty and aquaculture development in developing countries, 
derived from Stevenson & Irz, (2009) and literature cited therein, supplemented by more recent 
work at the WorldFish Center. ................................................................................................... 43
Table 8: Cross-sectoral issues to consider in developing coherent fishery and aquaculture policies that 
support poverty reduction and food security .............................................................................. 46
Table 9: Matching pro-poor and pro-food security fisheries policies to resource characteristics and national 
political-economic context ........................................................................................................ 49
Figure 1: Like other food commodities, fish prices globally showed a ‘spike’ in 2007-8.  
(Source: FAO, 2011) ................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 2: Aquaculture and poverty reduction: potential impact pathways (Source: Stevensen & Irz, 2009) ... 16
Figure 3: Global distribution of Fish protein consumption, 2005-2007 average, from FAO food balance  
sheets (Source: FAO, 2011) ...................................................................................................... 19
Figure 4: Relative and absolute contributions of fish to protein consumption in the 30 countries with the 
highest proportion of fish in the animal-based part of their diet. .................................................. 20
Figure 4a: Fish protein as a percent of animal protein consumption (%) ..................................................... 20
Figure 4b: Total protein consumption (g/capita/day) ................................................................................. 20
Figure 5: Index of fisheries dependency, based on proportion on contribution to animal protein (nutrition 
indicator) labour force involved in fisheries and aquaculture (employment) and contribution to GDP 
and export revenues (macro-economic indicator) . Data are from re-analysis of national statistics, 
carried out by BNP (2009) and Quest_Fish (www.quest-fish.org.uk),  
(Scholtens & Badjeck, 2010). .................................................................................................... 24
Figure 6: Gordon-Shaefer bioeconomic surplus production model for exploited fish stocks ........................ 27
Figure 7: Forecasted supply of coastal fish in the Western Pacific, relative to projected need in 2030  
(Bell et al., 2009) ...................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 8: Example time series (1976-2007) of fish consumption (g/capita/yr) and trade ($ per capita) for 
selected Least Developed or Low Income Food Deficit Countries. Fish consumption = red line;  
export values = blue line. Data source. FAOSTAT, accessed Dec 2010 ........................................ 35
Figure 9: Real unit prices of internationally traded seafood for developed and developing countries.  
Prices are in 2005 constant dollars adjusted by US GDP deflator  
(Source: Smith et al., 2010 – supplementary material) ................................................................ 37
Figure 10: Generalized sequencing of development activities to improve fisheries and aquaculture ............. 51
Figure 11: A policy-relevant research agenda to support the improved contribution of fisheries and 
aquaculture to poverty reduction and food security (WorldFish Center, 2011) .............................. 52
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
4
Glossary
d efinitions related to food security and poverty 
Sources: drawn from references cited in Bene et al., 2007; DFID, 2009 and Sowman & Cardoso, 2010.
Food security: When all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and 
nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. 
Food sovereignty: “The right of peoples to define their own food and agriculture policies; to protect and 
regulate domestic agricultural production and trade in order to achieve sustainable development objectives….
Food Sovereignty does not negate trade, but rather, it promotes the formulation of trade policies and practices 
that serve the rights of peoples to safe, healthy and ecologically sustainable production” (via Campesina)
Hunger is often used to refer in general terms to MDG1 and food insecurity. Acute hunger is when lack of food 
is short term, and is often caused when shocks such as drought or war affect vulnerable populations. Chronic 
hunger is a constant or recurrent lack of food and results in underweight and stunted children, and high infant 
mortality. ‘Hidden hunger’ is a lack of essential micronutrients in diets.
Malnutrition: An abnormal physiological condition caused by deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in energy, 
protein and/or other nutrients.
MDG 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger – has two associated indicators for its hunger target:
1. Prevalence of underweight among children under five years of age measures malnutrition at an 
individual level, collated by WHO and maintained in a global database on nutrition that allows comparability 
across countries.
2. Proportion of the population below a minimum level of dietary energy consumption measures 
hunger and food security, and is measured only at a national level (not at an individual level) through national 
food balance sheets based on aggregate data on food availability and assumed patterns of food distribution 
in each country. However, increased aggregate food availability is not synonymous with improving nutrition.
Nutrition security is achieved when secure access to appropriately nutritious food is coupled with a sanitary 
environment, adequate health services and care, to ensure a healthy and active life for all household members.
Poverty encompasses different dimensions of deprivation that relate to human capabilities including 
consumption and food security, health, education, rights, voice, security, dignity and decent work (from OECD 
Development Assistance Committee).
Undernutrition: is when the body contains lower than normal amounts of one or more nutrients i.e. deficiencies 
in macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins) and/or micronutrients (amino acids, vitamins, minerals), such that 
stunting, wasting and illness will occur.
Aqu Aculture, FiSherieS , Poverty And Food Security
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