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Auxiliary verbs (सहायक क्रिया) - Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams - Banking Exams

Introduction of Auxiliary verbs (सहायक क्रिया का परिचय)

Auxiliary verbs, also known as helping verbs, are verbs that are used together with the main verb in a sentence to indicate tense, mood, voice, or aspect. They help to clarify the meaning of the sentence by indicating the relationship between the subject and the action of the verb. Some common auxiliary verbs in English include "be," "do," "have," "can," "will," "shall," "may," "might," "must," and "should."

जो क्रिया मुख्य क्रिया के साथ वाक्य के निर्माण में सहायता करती है उसे सहायक क्रिया कहते हैं। दूसरे शब्दों में, मुख्य क्रिया के अर्थ को स्पष्ट करने में जो क्रियाएँ सहायक होती है वह सहायक क्रिया कहलाती है। कभी-कभी एक क्रिया और कभी एक से अधिक क्रिया भी सहायक क्रिया होती है।
जैसे :- है, था, रहे हो, रहे थे, रहा था, होगा, होगी इत्यादि।

Types of Auxiliary Verbs (सहायक क्रियाओं के प्रकार)

There are two types of auxiliary verbs: primary auxiliary verbs and modal auxiliary verbs.

1. Primary auxiliary verbs (प्राथमिक सहायक क्रिया): Primary auxiliary verbs are "be," "do," and "have." They are used to create tenses, questions, and negative sentences in English. They are called "primary" because they can function as main verbs as well.

Examples:

  • She is walking in the park. (The auxiliary verb "is" helps to form the present continuous tense.)
    वह पार्क में टहल रही है। (सहायक क्रिया "है" वर्तमान निरंतर काल बनाने में मदद करती है।)
  • Do you like ice cream? (The auxiliary verb "do" is used to form the question.)
    क्या आपको आइसक्रीम पसंन्द है? (सहायक क्रिया "do" का प्रयोग प्रश्न बनाने के लिए किया जाता है।)
  • I have finished my work. (The auxiliary verb "have" helps to form the present perfect tense.)
    मैंने अपना काम खत्म कर दिया है। (सहायक क्रिया "है" वर्तमान पूर्ण काल बनाने में मदद करती है।)

2. Modal auxiliary verbs (मोडल सहायक क्रियाएँ): Modal auxiliary verbs include "can," "could," "may," "might," "must," "shall," "should," "will," and "would." They are used to indicate modality, which refers to the speaker's attitude towards the action expressed by the main verb.

Examples:

  • You should eat more vegetables. (The auxiliary verb "should" expresses advice or suggestion.)
    आपको अधिक सब्जियां खानी चाहिए। (सहायक क्रिया "चाहिए" सलाह या सुझाव व्यक्त करता है।)
  • She can play the guitar. (The auxiliary verb "can" expresses ability or possibility.)
    वह वीणा बजा सकती है। (सहायक क्रिया "कर सकता है" क्षमता या संभावना व्यक्त करता है।)
  • He must finish his homework before he can watch TV. (The auxiliary verb "must" expresses obligation or necessity.)
    टीवी देखने से पहले उसे अपना होमवर्क पूरा करना होगा। (सहायक क्रिया "जरूरी" दायित्व या आवश्यकता व्यक्त करता है।)

Functions of  Auxiliary Verbs

  • To form questions: Auxiliary verbs are used to form questions in English.
    For example, in the sentence "She is eating dinner," the auxiliary verb "is" is used to form the question "Is she eating dinner?"
  • To form negatives: Auxiliary verbs are used to form negative sentences in English.
    For example, in the sentence "He has finished his homework," the auxiliary verb "has" is used to form the negative sentence "He has not finished his homework."
  • To form verb tenses: Auxiliary verbs are used to form different verb tenses in English.
    For example, in the sentence "I am eating dinner," the auxiliary verb "am" is used to form the present progressive tense.
  • To form the passive voice: Auxiliary verbs are used to form the passive voice in English.
    For example, in the sentence "The cake was baked by Mary," the auxiliary verb "was" is used to form the passive voice.
  • To indicate modality: Auxiliary verbs are used to indicate modality, or the speaker's attitude toward the content of the sentence.
    For example, in the sentence "I should go to the doctor," the auxiliary verb "should" indicates obligation or advisability.

Solved Exercise

Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the auxiliary verb "to be"
They ___ going to the movies tonight.

They are going to the movies tonight.
"are" is used because "they" is a plural subject.

I ___ not sure if I want to go out or stay home.

I am not sure if I want to go out or stay home.
"am" is used because the subject is "I."

He ___ studying for his exam all day.

He has been studying for his exam all day.
"has been" is used because the subject, "he," is singular.

Exercise 2: Choose the correct auxiliary verb for the following sentences
They ___ (has/have) already left for the party.

They have already left for the party.
"have" is used because "they" is a plural subject.

He ___ (was/were) playing soccer when it started raining.

He was playing soccer when it started raining.
"was" is used because the subject, "he," is singular.

I ___ (had/has) never been to that restaurant before.

I had never been to that restaurant before.
"had" is used because the subject is "I."

Exercise 3: Identify the auxiliary verb(s) in the following sentences
They have been studying for hours.

have been

I will be visiting my grandparents next week.

will be

He had already finished his work before the deadline.

had

The document Auxiliary verbs (सहायक क्रिया) | Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams - Banking Exams is a part of the Banking Exams Course Basic English Grammar for Competitive Exams.
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