Basic Electrical Eengineering - Lab manual , Engineering, Semester

# Basic Electrical Eengineering - Lab manual , Engineering, Semester Notes - Electrical Engineering (EE)

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``` Page 1

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1. To verify KCL and KVL
2. To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
3. To measure single phase power by using three ammeter method.
4. To measure the single phase power by using three voltmeter method.
5. To perform short circuit test on a single phase transformer.
6. To perform open circuit test on a single phase transformer.
7. To measure three phase power by using two wattmeter method.
8. To verify Thevenin’s theorem.
9. To verify Superposition theorem.

Page 2

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1. To verify KCL and KVL
2. To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
3. To measure single phase power by using three ammeter method.
4. To measure the single phase power by using three voltmeter method.
5. To perform short circuit test on a single phase transformer.
6. To perform open circuit test on a single phase transformer.
7. To measure three phase power by using two wattmeter method.
8. To verify Thevenin’s theorem.
9. To verify Superposition theorem.

EXPERIMENT NO. 1                               T.N. 11
Aim: To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Apparatus Required:
1. A.C. Ammeter- 3 nos.  (0-10 amp)
2. A.C Voltmeter - 3 nos. (0-300 V)
3. Rheostat
5. Connecting wires
Circuit Diagram:
KCL

KVL

Theory:
Procedure:
KCL:
1. First measure the least count of all ammeters A
1
, A
2
, and A
3
and all voltmeters V
1
, V
2

and V
3
.
2. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
3. Now, vary both the resistive and inductive load to obtain different readings of ammeters
A
1
, A
2
and A
3
and voltmeters V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
5. Calculate percentage error.
V
3
V
2

0-300 V
230 V, A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
V
1
2
0-300 V 0-300 V
L D
D
I
A
1

A
2

A
3
0-10 amp
0-10 amp
0-15 amp
230 V A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
L
D
I
D
Page 3

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1. To verify KCL and KVL
2. To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
3. To measure single phase power by using three ammeter method.
4. To measure the single phase power by using three voltmeter method.
5. To perform short circuit test on a single phase transformer.
6. To perform open circuit test on a single phase transformer.
7. To measure three phase power by using two wattmeter method.
8. To verify Thevenin’s theorem.
9. To verify Superposition theorem.

EXPERIMENT NO. 1                               T.N. 11
Aim: To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Apparatus Required:
1. A.C. Ammeter- 3 nos.  (0-10 amp)
2. A.C Voltmeter - 3 nos. (0-300 V)
3. Rheostat
5. Connecting wires
Circuit Diagram:
KCL

KVL

Theory:
Procedure:
KCL:
1. First measure the least count of all ammeters A
1
, A
2
, and A
3
and all voltmeters V
1
, V
2

and V
3
.
2. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
3. Now, vary both the resistive and inductive load to obtain different readings of ammeters
A
1
, A
2
and A
3
and voltmeters V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
5. Calculate percentage error.
V
3
V
2

0-300 V
230 V, A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
V
1
2
0-300 V 0-300 V
L D
D
I
A
1

A
2

A
3
0-10 amp
0-10 amp
0-15 amp
230 V A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
L
D
I
D
KVL:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
2. Now, adjust both the rheostat and inductive load to obtain different values of then take
V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
3. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
4. Calculate percentage error.

Observation Table:
KVL
Sl.No. V
1
in (Volts) V
2
in (Volts) V
3
in (Volts) ' 2 2
1 2 3
V V V ??
% Error
1
2
3
KCL
Sl.No. A
1
in (Volts) A
2
in (Volts) A
3
in (Volts) ' 2 2
1 2 3
A A A ??
% Error
1
2
3

Calculations:
KCL                                                                            KVL
% Error =
?? 1
'
-?? 1
?? 1
× 100                               % Error =
?? 1
'
-?? 1
?? 1
× 100
Precautions:
1. Make the connections properly.
2. Note the readings of voltmeters and ammeters properly.
3. Remove insulations from the connecting wire so as the current will flow properly.
4. Avoid loose connections and don’t touch wire with wet hand.

Page 4

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1. To verify KCL and KVL
2. To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
3. To measure single phase power by using three ammeter method.
4. To measure the single phase power by using three voltmeter method.
5. To perform short circuit test on a single phase transformer.
6. To perform open circuit test on a single phase transformer.
7. To measure three phase power by using two wattmeter method.
8. To verify Thevenin’s theorem.
9. To verify Superposition theorem.

EXPERIMENT NO. 1                               T.N. 11
Aim: To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Apparatus Required:
1. A.C. Ammeter- 3 nos.  (0-10 amp)
2. A.C Voltmeter - 3 nos. (0-300 V)
3. Rheostat
5. Connecting wires
Circuit Diagram:
KCL

KVL

Theory:
Procedure:
KCL:
1. First measure the least count of all ammeters A
1
, A
2
, and A
3
and all voltmeters V
1
, V
2

and V
3
.
2. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
3. Now, vary both the resistive and inductive load to obtain different readings of ammeters
A
1
, A
2
and A
3
and voltmeters V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
5. Calculate percentage error.
V
3
V
2

0-300 V
230 V, A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
V
1
2
0-300 V 0-300 V
L D
D
I
A
1

A
2

A
3
0-10 amp
0-10 amp
0-15 amp
230 V A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
L
D
I
D
KVL:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
2. Now, adjust both the rheostat and inductive load to obtain different values of then take
V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
3. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
4. Calculate percentage error.

Observation Table:
KVL
Sl.No. V
1
in (Volts) V
2
in (Volts) V
3
in (Volts) ' 2 2
1 2 3
V V V ??
% Error
1
2
3
KCL
Sl.No. A
1
in (Volts) A
2
in (Volts) A
3
in (Volts) ' 2 2
1 2 3
A A A ??
% Error
1
2
3

Calculations:
KCL                                                                            KVL
% Error =
?? 1
'
-?? 1
?? 1
× 100                               % Error =
?? 1
'
-?? 1
?? 1
× 100
Precautions:
1. Make the connections properly.
2. Note the readings of voltmeters and ammeters properly.
3. Remove insulations from the connecting wire so as the current will flow properly.
4. Avoid loose connections and don’t touch wire with wet hand.

EXPERIMENT NO. 2                                   T.N. 3
Aim of the Experiment: To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
Apparatus Required:
1. Incandescent lamp - 1 no.-  (200 Watt)
2. Rheostat – 1 no.- (128 Ohm, 2.3 A)
3. D.C Voltmeter - 1 nos. ( 0- 300 V)
4. D.C Ammeter - 1 nos. (0-2.5 A)
5. Connecting wires
6. Supply: 250 V D.C
Circuit Diagram:

Theory:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram with the switch (S/W) is in off position. .
2. Switch on D.C supply, close the switch and vary the rheostat to obtain different voltage
and current values. Note the voltage and corresponding current values. Record the
Calculate percentage error.
3. Switch of supply then open the switch.
Observation Table:

Sl.No. V in (Volts) I in (Amps) R=V/I
1
2
3

Plot the V-I characteristics of incandescent lamp.
Remarks: The characteristic is non-linear.
Precautions:
1. Make the connections properly.
2. Note the readings of voltmeters and ammeters properly.
3. Remove insulations from the connecting wire so as the current will flow properly.

Questions:
1. Why V-I characteristics of incandescent lamp is nonlinear.
2. Is it satisfy ohm’s law, and why?
A
0-300 volts
0-2.5 amp
250 V D.C
+
-
V
Incandescent
Lamp
Rheostat
S/W R
1

R
2

Page 5

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

1. To verify KCL and KVL
2. To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
3. To measure single phase power by using three ammeter method.
4. To measure the single phase power by using three voltmeter method.
5. To perform short circuit test on a single phase transformer.
6. To perform open circuit test on a single phase transformer.
7. To measure three phase power by using two wattmeter method.
8. To verify Thevenin’s theorem.
9. To verify Superposition theorem.

EXPERIMENT NO. 1                               T.N. 11
Aim: To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Apparatus Required:
1. A.C. Ammeter- 3 nos.  (0-10 amp)
2. A.C Voltmeter - 3 nos. (0-300 V)
3. Rheostat
5. Connecting wires
Circuit Diagram:
KCL

KVL

Theory:
Procedure:
KCL:
1. First measure the least count of all ammeters A
1
, A
2
, and A
3
and all voltmeters V
1
, V
2

and V
3
.
2. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
3. Now, vary both the resistive and inductive load to obtain different readings of ammeters
A
1
, A
2
and A
3
and voltmeters V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
5. Calculate percentage error.
V
3
V
2

0-300 V
230 V, A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
V
1
2
0-300 V 0-300 V
L D
D
I
A
1

A
2

A
3
0-10 amp
0-10 amp
0-15 amp
230 V A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
L
D
I
D
KVL:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
2. Now, adjust both the rheostat and inductive load to obtain different values of then take
V
1
, V
2
and V
3
.
3. Repeat the same procedure for different observations.
4. Calculate percentage error.

Observation Table:
KVL
Sl.No. V
1
in (Volts) V
2
in (Volts) V
3
in (Volts) ' 2 2
1 2 3
V V V ??
% Error
1
2
3
KCL
Sl.No. A
1
in (Volts) A
2
in (Volts) A
3
in (Volts) ' 2 2
1 2 3
A A A ??
% Error
1
2
3

Calculations:
KCL                                                                            KVL
% Error =
?? 1
'
-?? 1
?? 1
× 100                               % Error =
?? 1
'
-?? 1
?? 1
× 100
Precautions:
1. Make the connections properly.
2. Note the readings of voltmeters and ammeters properly.
3. Remove insulations from the connecting wire so as the current will flow properly.
4. Avoid loose connections and don’t touch wire with wet hand.

EXPERIMENT NO. 2                                   T.N. 3
Aim of the Experiment: To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp.
Apparatus Required:
1. Incandescent lamp - 1 no.-  (200 Watt)
2. Rheostat – 1 no.- (128 Ohm, 2.3 A)
3. D.C Voltmeter - 1 nos. ( 0- 300 V)
4. D.C Ammeter - 1 nos. (0-2.5 A)
5. Connecting wires
6. Supply: 250 V D.C
Circuit Diagram:

Theory:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram with the switch (S/W) is in off position. .
2. Switch on D.C supply, close the switch and vary the rheostat to obtain different voltage
and current values. Note the voltage and corresponding current values. Record the
Calculate percentage error.
3. Switch of supply then open the switch.
Observation Table:

Sl.No. V in (Volts) I in (Amps) R=V/I
1
2
3

Plot the V-I characteristics of incandescent lamp.
Remarks: The characteristic is non-linear.
Precautions:
1. Make the connections properly.
2. Note the readings of voltmeters and ammeters properly.
3. Remove insulations from the connecting wire so as the current will flow properly.

Questions:
1. Why V-I characteristics of incandescent lamp is nonlinear.
2. Is it satisfy ohm’s law, and why?
A
0-300 volts
0-2.5 amp
250 V D.C
+
-
V
Incandescent
Lamp
Rheostat
S/W R
1

R
2

EXPERIMENT NO. 3                              T.N. 2 B

Aim of the Experiment: To measure the single phase power in a single phase a.c. circuit
by using three ammeters.

Apparatus Required:
1. A.C Wattmeter - 1 nos. ( 0- 250 V, 0- amp)
2. A.C Ammeter -  1 nos. (0-10 A)
3. A.C Ammeter -  2 nos. (0-5 A)
4. A.C Voltmeter - 1 nos. (0-300 V)
5. Variac: 230 V, 10 A, 50 Hz, 1-Phase
6. Resistor: 450 ohm
8. Connecting wires

Theory:
3
cos Ø                                                                                 (1)
From the phasor diagram we can write,
I
1
2
=I
2
2
+I
3
2
+2.I
2
.I
3
cos Ø                                                                                                          (2)
Power factor, cos Ø= (I
1
2
-I
2
2
-I
3
2
)/ 2.I
2
.I
3
(3)
I
2
=V/R  (Here R= 450 Ohm)
Now,
P
calculated
=VI
3
cos Ø= I
2
R I
3
cos Ø
= R I
2
I
3
((I
1
2
-I
2
2
-I
3
2
)/ 2.I
2
.I
3
) = (R/2) * (I
1
2
-I
2
2
-I
3
2
)                                                               (4)
From the above equation it can observed that, the power and power factor in an a.c circuit can
be measured by using 3-single phase ammeters, instead of a wattmeter.
Percentage Error = (P
calculated
A
3

A
2

450 O
230 V, A.C
Supply, 50 Hz
P
N
A
1
2
0-5 A
0-10 amp 0-10 amp
Variac
Wattmeter
M
L
C
L
D
Circuit Diagram
V
R
1

R
2

230 V, 10 A
V
230 V
T
N
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