Beginning of European Commerce UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Beginning of European Commerce UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Beginning of European Commerce UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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  • The Portuguese established their naval supremacy in Asia and “turned the Indian Ocean into a Portuguese sea” by defeating the combined fleets of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat in 1509.
  • The Danes founded a settlement at Tranquebar in Tanjore district. They did not, however, find a foothold in India and consequently sold their settlement in India to The British.
  • Vasco da Gama found out a new route to India and in 1498 reached Calicut
  • The commercial objective of the Portuguese in India was to capture pepper and other superior spices trade.
  • Vasco da Gama founded a factory at Cannanore during his second visit to India in 1501.Beginning of European Commerce UPSC Notes | EduRev
    Fig: Vasco Da Gama
  • Alfonso de Albuquerque is regarded as having laid the real foundation of Portuguese power in India.
  • In the seventeenth century the new and more profitable Indian commodities introduced in the European market were textiles, indigo, saltpetre and raw silk.
  • The pioneer Dutch who discovered commercial possibilities in India and whose book on his eastern voyage caused sensation in the western world was Linchoten.
  • The main commercial interest of the Dutch lied at Spice Islands of Indonesia.
  • The Dutch turned out Portuguese from the Malay Straits and the Indonesian Islands.
  • The Dutch and the English entered the East as friends against the common enemy, the Portuguese. Their commercial rivalry led, however, to the massacre of the Englishmen by the Dutch at Amboyna.
  • The chief Dutch export from the Coromandel ports was textiles.
  • Till 1659 the chief or governor of the Dutch Company was stationed at Pulicat.
  • The English set up their first factory or trading station in India at Surat.
  • The chiefs of the English factory at Surat were imprisoned and put in irons by the local authorities in 1625, because they made an attempt to fortify their factory.
  • The English opened their first factory in the South in 1611 at Masulipatam.
  • The first English obtained the lease of Madras in 1639 from the ruler of Chandragiri
  • The first English factory to be fortified was Madras.
  • The English were permitted to fortify Bombay because of the threat posed to English trade at the time by the rising Maratha power.'
  • The English opened their first fatories in Eastern India in Orissa.
  • The political condition in the late seventeenth century which made the English think of establishing their political power in India was Aurangzeb’s complete involvement in the wars against the Marathas.
  • The Indian textiles which were used by the Dutch in the African slave trade were plain dyed textiles.
  • The first Portuguese fort on the Indian soil was built at Cochin.
  • The greatest meeting ground of the Indian and European merchants was Surat.
  • The state which granted the Golden Farman to the Dutch to trade freely on payment of a mere 500 pagodas a year as duty was Golcunda.
  • Textiles were described as “the left arm of the European trade from India” in the seventeenth century because Indian textiles of various varieties had ready markets in Europe and Africa.
  • The port of Bengal which was called by the Portuguese the porto grande or grand port was Chittagong.
  • In 1689 the seat of the Dutch government in India was shifted from Pulicat to Negapatam.
  • The ‘interlopers’ were the English merchants who, in spite of the Company’s monopoly, traded independently
  • The English East India Company’s first ‘Presidency’ in India was Surat.
  • The credit for founding Calcutta in 1690 goes to Job Charnock.
  • The French Company for the trade of the East India was founded in India by Colbert.
  • The most important French settlement in Bengal was Chandranagar.
  • The fortunes of the French East India Company were adversely affected at the close of the seventeenth century on account of the war between the French and the Dutch who were in alliance with the English in Europe.
  • The English governor in India who was expelled by Aurangzeb was Sir John Child.
  • From 1685 to 1690 “the English in Bengal were in a state of flux” because of their repeated defeats and expulsion out of Hughli by the Mughals.
  • The founder of Madras was Francis Day.
  • The English had to face continuous troubles and even the wrath of the Mughals on account of the activities of Interlopers.
  • The French got the site of Pondicherry from the Adilshahi Sultan of Bijapur.Beginning of European Commerce UPSC Notes | EduRev
    Fig: Adilshahi Sultan
  • The Dutch fort named Geldria, which was the headquarters of the Dutch director-general of Coromandel, was located at Pulicat.
  • The governor of the East India Company in the seventeenth century, who was anxious “to found a large, well grounded, sure English dominion in India for all time to come”, was Sir Josiah Child.
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