Bio Remediation - PPT, IBT, Biotechnology, Engineering, Semester Biotechnology Engineering (BT) Notes | EduRev

Biotechnology Engineering (BT) : Bio Remediation - PPT, IBT, Biotechnology, Engineering, Semester Biotechnology Engineering (BT) Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Bioremediation 
Chapter 8 
Page 2


Bioremediation 
Chapter 8 
What is bioremediation? 
The use of bacteria and fungi and 
plants to break down or degrade toxic 
chemical compounds that have 
accumulated in the environment 
Page 3


Bioremediation 
Chapter 8 
What is bioremediation? 
The use of bacteria and fungi and 
plants to break down or degrade toxic 
chemical compounds that have 
accumulated in the environment 
What are environmental 
contaminants? 
• Pollutants 
– naturally-occurring 
compounds in the 
environment that are 
present in unnaturally high 
concentrations. 
 
– Examples: 
• crude oil 
• refined oil 
• phosphates 
• heavy metals 
• Xenobiotics 
– chemically synthesized 
compounds that have 
never occurred in nature. 
 
– Examples: 
• pesticides 
• herbicides 
• plastics 
Page 4


Bioremediation 
Chapter 8 
What is bioremediation? 
The use of bacteria and fungi and 
plants to break down or degrade toxic 
chemical compounds that have 
accumulated in the environment 
What are environmental 
contaminants? 
• Pollutants 
– naturally-occurring 
compounds in the 
environment that are 
present in unnaturally high 
concentrations. 
 
– Examples: 
• crude oil 
• refined oil 
• phosphates 
• heavy metals 
• Xenobiotics 
– chemically synthesized 
compounds that have 
never occurred in nature. 
 
– Examples: 
• pesticides 
• herbicides 
• plastics 
Early examples of bioremediation 
• Outhouse?Centralized engineered 
wastewater treatment systems 
– Microorganisms oxidize organic waste 
molecules to carbon dioxide and water 
– Why do we want to use engineered man-
made for this? 
Page 5


Bioremediation 
Chapter 8 
What is bioremediation? 
The use of bacteria and fungi and 
plants to break down or degrade toxic 
chemical compounds that have 
accumulated in the environment 
What are environmental 
contaminants? 
• Pollutants 
– naturally-occurring 
compounds in the 
environment that are 
present in unnaturally high 
concentrations. 
 
– Examples: 
• crude oil 
• refined oil 
• phosphates 
• heavy metals 
• Xenobiotics 
– chemically synthesized 
compounds that have 
never occurred in nature. 
 
– Examples: 
• pesticides 
• herbicides 
• plastics 
Early examples of bioremediation 
• Outhouse?Centralized engineered 
wastewater treatment systems 
– Microorganisms oxidize organic waste 
molecules to carbon dioxide and water 
– Why do we want to use engineered man-
made for this? 
More recent examples 
• By 1970s it became apparent that we were 
polluting the environment faster than the natural 
microbial processes could degrade the 
pollutants 
– Congress established the Environmental Protection 
Agency 
• Identified “Superfund Sites” that had priority over other 
polluted systems for special funding and cleanup in 1980 
– 1 in 5 Americans lives within 3-4 miles of a polluted site treated 
by the EPA 
– Not much progress has been made even though $billions has 
been spent  
 
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