The questions related to blood relations involve various family members and their relations.
- The questions provide some information related to the different members of the family and the candidates are required to identify the relationship between those particular members.
- The blood relations questions might be of different forms.
Table: Relationships among the family members
Try yourself:Pointing to a photograph on the wall, Anil says to Nitesh, “ The person in the photograph is the son of my mother’s sister and is your brother”. Which of the following is true?
Anil’s mother’s sister is Anil’s aunt, so her son would be Anil’s cousin.
Nitesh is the brother of Anil’s cousin, so Nitesh is also a cousin of Anil.
Hence d is correct.
(a) Single Person Based Blood Relations Questions
If the question asks about Single person blood relation, then follow the following steps for solving the question.
Step 1: Simplify the given blood relations as much as you can. For example, Father’s Son would be me, etc.
Step 2: Break the given sentence at “is/as/was” to reach the answer quickly.
Step 3: Check the answer by going backward in the given sentence.
Let us take an example, Questions says – Pointing to a photograph, a lady tells Pramila, “I am the only daughter of the lady and her son is your maternal uncle.” How is the speaker related to Pramila’s father?
Solution: Now, ‘only daughter of the lady’ – refers to speaker’s mother (which is not important for our question, so leave it there)
Speaker’s mother’s son = speaker’s brother = pramila’s uncle = speaker is pramila’s mother = speaker is related to pramila’s father as Wife.
(b) Mixed Blood Relations Questions
- There is another type of profile based on which various questions are asked in different competitive exams for testing the analytical skills of candidates. If the approach is right, one can solve this type of questions accurately, thereby securing crucial marks. The questions on blood relations sometimes have Chain Blood Relations Problems which are also referred to as Mixed Blood Relations Problems.
- In these problems, there are more than one persons mentioned. The mutual blood relations type of problems can be solved with the help of diagrams and family trees. Sometimes, when there are quite many characters in the problem, one should use symbols to mark the details to avoid confusion.
Generally the following symbols are used:
- ‘+’ denoting Male candidate
- ‘-‘ denoting Female candidate
- ‘<=>’ denotes Couple
- ‘——-‘ denotes Same generation i.e.brother –brother (or) sister-sister (or) sister – brother
- ‘_______’ denotes Different generations i.e. father-son (or) mother-son (or) father-daughter (or) Mother – daughter
The following blood relations form part of different generations of a family tree diagram.
- First generation : Grand father, Grand mother
- Second generation : Father, Mother, Uncle, Aunt.
- Third generation : Self, Sister, Brother, Brother in law,Sister in law
- Fourth generation : Son, Daughter, Nephew, Niece.
Let us give an example to help you understand the process.
Question: Anil and Bimal are brothers and Chandani and Damini are sisters. Anil’s son is Damini’s brother. How is Bimal related to Chandani?
Solution: The individuals in the given blood relations problem can be denoted by using just the first letter of the name to further simplify. The blood relations tree of this question would look like this:
- Now, you can see yourself that here, A and B have been denoted with ‘+’ while C and D are denoted with a ‘-‘ symbol with them. This process even when used for depicting larger trees would keep it simple. Since the question says that Anil and Bimal are brothers, hence belong to same generation, which is shown by the ‘- – – -‘ symbol. Similarly Chandani and Damini are also shown with the dotted line symbol to show their similar generation.
- With the help of the above diagram it becomes clear that Bimal is UNCLE of Chandani. Hence, the answer to the question How is Bimal related to Chandani? is – He is Chandani’s uncle.
Let's have a look at different types of questions of Blood Relations.
Directions: Questions 1 to 4
Mr Rajat Chopra and his wife Nikita Chopra have 3 sons whose names are Ramesh, Suresh and Umesh. Mishra family is a neighbour of the Chopra’s.
Mr Amit Mishra and his wife Neha Mishra have 2 daughters whose names are Payal and Ruchi. The two neighbouring families go to Kerala for a vacation. They decide to go for boating but no boat could carry more than 3 members. So they hire 3 boats. None of the children knows how to row a boat, so at least one of the adults have to be there on each boat. Moreover, no boat has all three members of the same family.
Q.1. If the three children from the Chopra family ride in different boats, then which of the following is definitely false?
(I) Rajat and Nikita are rowing in the same boat.
(II) Amit and Neha are rowing in the same boat.
A: I Only
B: II Only
C: Both I and II
D: Neither I nor II
Sol: The three boys are rowing in different boats. We know that there are only three boats and each boat can carry three persons. Hence Amit and Nikita cannot be on the same boat as that would mean that one of the boats has all the members from the Chopra family. So I is definitely false.
Statement II can be true as well as false. It can be true if the two people travel in one boat while Amit and Nikita row the other two boats. Hence nothing can be said with certainty about statement II. Thus the correct answer is option A
Q.2. If Nikita and Amit are on the same boat, then which of the following cannot be the combination of people on any boat?
A: Ramesh, Neha, Ruchi
B: Neha, Ramesh, Suresh
- Neha, Suresh and Rajat cannot be on the same boat. This is because we know that one of the adults have to be there on each boat.
- Since Nikita and Amit are already on the same boat, Neha and Rajat have to on the other two boats.
- If they are on the same boat, then there will be no adult on the third boat. Hence, the combination mentioned in option D is not possible.
Q.3. If Neha and Ruchi are on the same boat, which of the following could be a list of people on another boat?
D: Amit, Payal, Nikita
- We know that none of the boats has all the members of the same family. So, each boat must have at least 1 member from each of the two families.
- Neha and Ruchi are on the same boat. So, only two people from Mishra family are remaining.
- Both of them need to be on different boats. Hence options A and D can be ruled out because they have Payal and Amit on the same boat.
- Option C is also not possible since it does not have any adult on the boat. Thus, the only feasible option is option B
Q.4. If Rajat and Amit are in the same boat and each of the three brothers are on different boats, then which of the following is necessarily true?
A: Every boat has both males and females on it.
B: One of the boats has only females on it.
C: One of the boats has only males on it.
D: The two sisters are on the same boat.
- If Rajat and Amit are on the same boat, then the other two boats would be rowed by Neha and Nikita.
- It is known that each of the brothers is on different boats. So one of them will be on Rajat and Amit’s boat.
- Hence there will be one boat with only males. Thus, c is necessarily true.
Try yourself:P and Q are sisters and R and S are brothers. P’s daughter is S’s sister. How is Q related to R?
Given P’s daughter is S’s sister ==> R and S are children of P.
==> Q is the maternal aunt of R and S.
Directions: Questions 5 to 7
There are 6 members (A, B, C, D, E, F) in a family who are spread across 3 generations. There are two couples in the family and no one from the third generation is married. E is the wife of C. F and B are the only people belonging to their generation and they are also a couple. There are 4 male members in the family.
Q.5. Which of the following must be true?
A: D is the grandson of A
B: A and D belong to the same generation
C: There is no female in the third generation
D: E is the father of F
Q.6. P and Q are sisters and R and S are brothers. P’s daughter is S’s sister. How is Q related to R?
- E is the wife of C, so E and C belong to the first generation or second generation. Moreover, since F and B belong to the same generation and are a couple, they must also belong to either 1st or 2nd generation.
- A and D need not necessarily belong to the same generation.
- Moreover, since there are only two female members, they must be part of the 1st and 2nd generations only.
- Hence, the third generation has no female members. Hence option C is the correct answer.
Sol: Given: P’s daughter is S’s sister → R and S are children of P
→ Q is the maternal aunt of R and S
Q.7. Pointing to a photograph on the wall, Anil says to Nitesh, “ The person in the photograph is the son of my mother’s sister and is your brother”. Which of the following is true?
A: Nitesh is Anil’s nephew
B: Anil is Nitesh’s brother in law
C: Nitesh’s mother is Anil’s sister
D: Anil and Nitesh are cousins
E: Anil’s sister is Nitesh’s aunt
Puzzle Based Questions
- Anil’s mother’s sister is Anil’s aunt, so her son would be Anil’s cousin.
- Nitesh is the brother of Anil’s cousin, so Nitesh is also a cousin of Anil.
In this type of question, the statements are given in the form of puzzles.
The relations are mostly of mixed blood relation type and the candidates are required to decode the entire statement and identify the relationship between the given entities.
Here is an illustration to explain this well.
Q.8. In a family of W, X, Y, and Z, W and X are brothers; while Y and Z are sisters. How are X and Y related if W’s son is Z’s brother?
Sol: From the statement, a simple diagram can be sketched to analyse the relation between Y and Z.
As the total generations in the question are two, the number of rows in the diagram will also be two. The sign (+) implies male, while (-) implies female.
From the diagram it is clear that Z’s and Y’s father is W. As X is W’s brother, it can be said that X is Y’s uncle.
Symbol Based Questions
- Also known as coded blood relation questions, these involve a set of codes and the candidates are required to decode the sentences (or codes) to identify the relation of the given entities.
- Taking an example,
Q.9. Consider the following statements and answer the given question.
If L + M => L is the husband of M,
L / M => L is the sister of M and
L + M => L is the son of Y, then
How is W and Z related from the following statement: W * X + Y / Z?
Sol: This can be solved by dividing the question and solving from left to right. Now a simple diagram can be made by mentioning the gender and their relations as given below:
Thus, it is easily seen that W is the nephew of P.
- These were the most important types of blood relation questions that are frequently asked in the CAT exam.
- Solving different variations of the related question is very crucial to be able to increase the confidence, speed, and accuracy while solving the actual CAT paper.
Q.10. That girl is Ramu’s sister’s uncle’s wife’s daughter. How is that girl related to Ramu?
Ans: This question seems confusing initially; but, breaking the sentence into parts and then analyzing the relation can be extremely easy. Now this sentence can be broken as,
Ramu’s sister’s uncle = Ramu’s uncle
Ramu’s uncle’s wife’s son = Ramu’s cousin
Therefore, that girl is the cousin of Ramu.