Ques 1: What is meant by Satyagraha? (1)
Ans: The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true and struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
Ques 2: Where do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (1)
Ans: In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals occur in the veins and the lodes. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from these veins and lodes.
Ques 3: Explain the meaning of transparency in democracy. (1)
Ans: Transparency means that every individual belonging to a particular democratic country has the right(RTI) to examine or instigate that whether the laws, plans, action, policies or decisions taken by the government are correct or not and whether they are beneficial to them or not. If a person is unhappy with any decision taken by the government, then he has the right to change that decision.
In a democracy, government should take decisions after following proper procedures, norms or ways.
Ques 4: How is the maximum retail price printed on packets beneficial for you? (1)
Ans: It is very important as it sets a limit beyond which the sellers cannot sell the product. otherwise they would easily exploit the consumers
Ques 5: Give an example of violation of consumer's right to choose. (1)
Ans: Right to choose implies that any consumer who receives a service in whatever capacity, regardless of age, gender and nature of service, has the right to choose whether to continue to receive the service.
Eg. If I am using Airtel services but now I want to choose to switch to JIO, therefore I have to right to choose whichever service provider suits me the best.
Ques 6: Explain the meaning of democracy. (1)
Ans: Democracy is the form of government with the following features:
The features of democracy are:
1. All the major decisions are taken by the candidates elected by people. For instance, in India all the decisions of the country are taken by the government.
2. Elections provide with fair opportunity to the people to change the present government. This suggests the importance of dissolution of government, which takes place when citizens of a nation are not satisfied with its working.
3. The opportunity of dissolving the government is equal for all. This suggests that every citizen has some rights which are equal for all.
4. Regular elections and the option of dissolution make the powers of government limited in nature.
5.Freedom of Speech and expression.
Ques 7: Name any one political party of India which grew out of a movement. (1)
Ans: The best example for such a political party is the “ Aam Aadmi Party” .
Ques 8: How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things? Give an example. (1)
Ans: Money acts as medium of exchange as it facilitates exchange through a common medium i.e. currency. With money as a medium, the two components of a transaction namely, sale and purchase can be easily separated. In other words, money eliminates the need for double coincidence of wants for an exchange to take place and can be performed independently of each other. Moreover, money has widened the domain and scope of market. Today, market is no more limited to a specific geographical location. This can be verified by the increasing popularity of online transactions. Hence, it can be concluded that money has infused commercialisation, which has raised the overall level of economic activities and has made production market oriented.
Ques 9: Analyse the importance of the three-tier judicial machinery under Consumer Protection Act. (COPRA), 1986 for redressal of consumer disputes. (3)
Ans: Under COPRA, the Indian govt.has set up comsumer courts for the protection of consumers against exploitation by unfair and unethical trade practises by sellers, producers and other service providers.
These courts have been set up at three levels,-Central, State and District Levels.
i)Central consumer courts address and settle claims of Rs. 1 Crore and above.
ii)National consumer courts address and settle claims of 20 lakh and 1 crore.
iii) District consumer court address and settle claims below 1 Crore.
If a person still has his/her issue not resolved , he/she can appeal to a higher level of court. (apellate system)
Ques 10: How do Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) interlink production across countries? Explain with examples. (3)
Ans: The multinational corporations have spread their production and interaction across the countries in the following ways :
a. They set up production jointly with local companies. They provide money for additional investments like buying new machines for faster production.
b. MNC may buy up local companies and then expand production. For example : Cargil Foods, a very large MNC (USA), has bought smaller Indian companies such as Parekh Foods.
b. The MNCs provide efficient managerial and advanced technology for faster production and efficient use of resources.
c. Large MNCs in developed countries place orders for production with small producers. Examples are Garments, footwear, sports items etc. The products are supplied to the MNCs, which then sell these under their own brand names to the customers.
d. MNC's procure raw materials for their production from local producers which has helped the latter to prosper and grow.
Ques 11: Explain any three loan activities of banks in India. (3)
Ans: 1. Banks provide loans for various economic activities
2. Banks keep only a small propotions of the deposits with them as cash
3. These deposits are used to meet the loan requirement
4. Bank intermediates between those who have surplus funds and those who are in need of these funds.
5. Bank offer very less interest on deposits than what they demand on loans
Ques 12: How do pressure groups and movements strengthen democracy? Explain. (3)
Ans: Pressure groups and movements certainly, have an impact on our Democracy.
It is argued at times that groups and movements tend to disrupt public order, they may wield excessive power and influence on the government without being accountable and responsible to anyone, they tend to accumulate money and have a narrow outlook as they focus on a particular issue catering to a particular section of society but the importance of these groups and movements cannot be ignored rather they have influenced the political system in the following manner and that their influence is desirable for the very reason they have strengthened and expanded our democracy:
a. They have raised the democratic consciousness of the people.
b. These movements have deepened democracy, they have ensured greater participation of people through meetings, processions making people more aware and vigilant.
c. They have rather helped in the due representation and accommodation of diverse interests.
d. They have put pressure on the government making it more accountable and responsive to the needs of the people.
e. They have ensured balance of power among different conflicting groups and interests.
f. Their influence has ensured greater transparency in the functioning of government as they strive for good governance.
Right to Information, Lok Pal, Domestic Violence Act are rather the result of their influence .
Ques 13: "Minerals are unevenly distributed in India." Support the statement with examples. (3)
Ans: India is blessed with plenty of metallic and non-metallic mineral resources. However, they are unevenly distributed due to differences or variations in geological structures, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals. For instance,
1. majority of coal reserves, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
2. sedimentary rocks in Gujarat and Assam have petroleum deposits.
3. Rajasthan has the same rock systems as Peninsular India but has rich non-ferrous minerals.
4. the alluvial plains of North India are mostly devoid of mineral resources.
Ques 14: Evaluate any three features of 'Golden Quadrilateral' Super Highways. (3)
Ans: The features of Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:-
This have beenplanned to meet the requirement of a fast movement of traffic.
The govt. has launched a major road development project linking Delhi- Kolkata- Chennai- Mumbai and Delhi by 6- lane Super Highways..
The North-South corridor linking Srinagar and kanyakumari, and East-West corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbandar are parts of this project.
The majot objective of these Super Highways is to reduce time and distance between the mega cities of India.
these projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority Of India (NHAI) or metro city.
Ques 15: Analyse the role of opposition political parties in democracy. (3)
Ans: Opposition parties play an important role in democracies. They play both positive and negative role. 5
1. They ensures political party in power does not misuse or abuse its power.
2. It exposes the weaknesses of the ruling party
3. It keeps a close vigil on the bills and expenditure of the government
1. It targets the government and aims as disloging and discrediting the government for all the ills and
the troubles the people face.
2. Through stalling the proceedings of the parliament, dharmas and gharries, it curtails the progress
of the country.
Ques 16: On the basis of which values will it be a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life? Explain. (3)
Ans: a. Democracy also involves competition among various groups to get their demands fulfilled. Making conflicting claims and voicing their concerns is the outcome of Democracy and how the democratic system responds to such conflicting claims is the challenge of Democracy
b. Since social division. groups are the characteristic feature of every society it is obvious that group make varied demands.
c. Political leadership is thus faced with the problem of pacifying different groups.
d. Different communities have different aims and aspirations, which may conflict with each other, posing a challenge to the system to resolve those,
e. Democracy is all about resolving conflicting interests in which government may not be able top appease all the social groups while may pacify some. For example, reservation policy.
f. Conflicts are eliminated by means of power sharing among different groups.We may give example of Linguistic reorganization of the states to represent their interests, for example Telugu speaking state of Andhra Pradesh, then Maharashtra, Gujarat etc.
g. Government tries to accommodate varied interests by means of negotiations and bargaining.
h. Democracy holds within itself values of negotiations, compromise, bargaining, deliberation to accommodate social diversity and to resolve conflict in the society.
i. It is by mean of power sharing democracy tries to ensure peace and stability in the society,
Ques 17: Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the 'Non-Cooperation Movement' in February, 1922? Explain any three reasons. (3)
Ans: The Non-Cooperation Movement saw some success. But ultimately, it had to be withdrawn because of several reasons:--
1). People who had left their jobs, colleges to support this movement had to come back because they had to support their families and themselves. So they came back to their jobs. People found the use of khadi to be expensive and so started buying British factory made textiles again.
2). There was widespread violence too. Due to the incident known as Chaura-Chauri, Gandhiji was compelled to stop this movement.
3). Also Gandhiji felt that the people of India are not ready for these type of mass satyagrah movement.
Ques 18: Evaluate the role of business classes in the 'Civil Disobedience Movement'. (3)
Ans: The business classes supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see Swaraj, as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints . But after the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic. So, when the movement was re launched by Gandhi ji, most of them withdrew their support. They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities and worried about prolonged disruption of business.
Ques 19: Describe any three characteristics of the Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Iron-ore belt in India. (3)
Ans: Three characteristics of Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur iron-ore belt in India are as follows :
Lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
Very high grade hematites are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chattisgarh.
The range of hills comprise of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore.
It has the best physical properties needed for steel making.
Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.
Ques 20: What is liberalisation? Describe any four effects of liberalisation on the Indian economy. (1 + 4 = 5)
Ans: Liberalisation means the opening of the country for foreign investments and capitals. Trade barriers are often used by countries to protect the domestic industries from the products of foreign land. Usually countries resort to impose Licenses, Import quotas or Voluntary export restraints to protect local markets. However after liberalization organizations like the WTO attempted to reduce production and consumption distortions created by tariffs. Free trade benefits consumers through increased choice and reduced prices. On the other hand free flow capital ensures that any country can make investments in the alien land. This only increases the possibility of generating more employment which in turn enhances the revenue generation of the country. Organizations like ASEAN aim Free flow of goods, services, investment, capitals and skilled labor. These steps has improved global integration and brought about globalization.
Impact of Liberalization on:
Producers: Tough competition faced by the producers in the native country by the producers of foreign markets
Workers: Job insecurity, denial of fair share in the benefits brought about by globalisation.
Increase in the foreigh trade
Increase in foreign investment
exchange of technology between countries.
Better means of communication have developed alongside globalization
Better job opportunities for people gave rise to migration
Ques 21: Explain the measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of untouchability. (5)
Ans: The efforts by Mahatma Gandhi to integrate untouchables in the national movements is as follows:
He called the untouchables’ as harijan, or the children of God,
He organised satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to publicwells, tanks, roads and schools.
He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the bhangi (the sweepers), and persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up ‘the sin of untouchability’.
At the Karachi session of the Congress, in March 1931, Gandhiji drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights. Few sections of it was a a legal attack on the institution of untouchability. Section 4 declared that all “citizens are equal before law, irrespective of caste, creed or sex”.
Ques 22: Examine any five factors affecting the location of industries in India. (5)
Ans: The factors affecting the location of industry are as follows : -
1. Availability of raw materials : In determining the location of an industry, nearness to sources of raw material is of vital importance. Nearness to the sources of raw materials would reduce the cost of production of the industry. For most of the major industries, the cost of raw materials form the bulk of the total cost. Therefore, most of the agro-based and forest-based industries are located in the vicinity of the sources of raw material supply.
2. Availability of Labour : Adequate supply of cheap and skilled labour is necessary for and industry. The attraction of an industry towards labour centres depends on the ratio of labour cost to the total cost of production which Weber calls Labour cost of Index. The availability of skilled workers in the interior parts of Bombay region was one of the factors responsible for the initial concentration of cotton textile industry in the region.3. Proximity to Markets : Access to markets is an important factor which the entrepreneur must take into consideration. Industries producing perishable or bulky commodities which cannot be transported over long distance are generally located in close proximity to markets. Industries located near the markets could be able to reduce the costs of transport in distributing the finished product as in the case of bread and bakery, ice, tins, cans manufacturing, etc. Accessibility of markets is more important in the case of industries manufacturing consumer goods rather than producer goods.4. Transport Facilities : Transport facilities, generally, influence the location of industry. The transportation with its three modes, i.e., water, road, and rail collectively plays an important role. So the junction points of water-ways, roadways and railways become humming centres of industrial activity. Further, the modes and rates of transport and transport policy of Government considerably affect the location of industrial units. The heavy concentration of cotton textile industry in Bombay has been due to the cheap and excellent transportation network both in regard to raw materials and markets.
Ques 23: Analyse any five positive effects of globalisation on the Indian economy. (5)
Ans: Positive impact of the globalisation on India
(i) Availability of variety of products which enabled the consumers to have greater choice and enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products.
(ii) This led to higher standard of living.
(iii) Increase in foreign direct investment.
(iv) Creation of new jobs in certain industries.
(v) Top Indian companies have been benefited by investing in new technology and production methods along with successful collaborations with foreign companies.
(vi) Globalisation has enabled some large Indian company to emerge as multinationals themselves. For example, Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy etc.
(vii) Enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as multinationals.
(viii) Created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT.
Ques 24: "No party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations." Analyse the statement. (5)
Ans: All countries are not the same in composition. Country like India has a diverse population. People of various religion, tribe, race, language reside here. Thus policies should be so framed that will fulfil the needs of all and will not give a upper hand to any one. On the other hand countries like Bangladesh where Islam is the most dominant religion and the major Ethnic group are the Bengalis, policy decisions will be aimed at other ends. Situations also change during periods of war and emergency. Adjustments and re-organisation of the government often needs to taken.
Ques 25: Analyse the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy. (5)
Ans: The given below points enumerate the contribution of chemical industry to Indian economy.
(i) Chemical industry contributes to 3% of GDP and is the third largest in Asia.
(ii) It includes large and small scale units in both organic and inorganic sector.
(iii) Chemicals are used by most of the industries viz . fertiliser industries, petrochemical industries, synthetic fibre industries etc. at one stage or the other.
The dependency on chemical industries in terms of contribution to GDP, establishing large scale and small units in both organic and inorganic sector and use of chemicals by other industries make it a fast growing and diversifying industry