Ques 1: Who organised Dalits into the 'Depressed Classes Association' in 1930? (1)
Ans: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organised the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
Ques 2: Name the southern terminal station of the 'North-South Corridor.' (1)
Ans: Kanyakumari is the southern terminal station of North-South Corridor.
Ques 3: If you want to extract information about the functions of any government department, which right would you exercise? (1)
Ans: Right to Information Act is used to extract information about the functions of any government department.
Ques 4: Explain the meaning of 'political party.' (1)
Ans: A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good. Since there can be different views on what is goo for all, they try to persuade people why their policies are better than others '. They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections.
Ques 5: Analyse any three reasons for slowed down of Non-Cooperation Movement in cities. (3)
Ans: Three reasons by which non-cooperation movement got slow down in cities:
1. Khadi was expensive so poor people are not able to afford it.
2. Alternate institutions which can replace colonial instutions were slow to come up.
3.Students, teachers, and lawers started tickling and again joined colonial institutions.
Ques 6:Why do the movement of goods and services from one place to another require fast and efficient means of transport. Explain with examples. (3)
Ans: Reasons for fast and efficient means of transport :
(i.) It is necessary to carry raw materials to production centers and from manufacturing hubs to markets in as little time as possible to achieve efficiency. This is particularly true for perishable goods.
(ii.) It enables goods to reach newer markets and allows people greater accessibility to goods and services. Efficient transport network enables markets to expand to hinterland.
(iii.) Communication opens new avenues of commerce. Modern communication tools like internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances, facilitating electronic commerce and banking across countries and contributing to integration of markets. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.
(iv.) Goods and services cannot move on their own from supply houses to demand locales. This necessitates the need for transportation. Thus, a country's economy depends not only on the production and sale of goods and services, but on their transport as well.
(v.) The means of transportation and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy because they are the preconditions for progress and development.
Ques 7: Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries.
Ans: Agriculture and industries are interrelated to each other and move hand in hand which are explained in the following points :
(i.) Agriculture serves as a major source of raw materials to many industries.
(ii.) Industries obtain raw materials from agriculture and produce finished products. For example, Jute, sugar, cotton textiles etc.
(iii.) Manufacturing industries which are involved in the production of tools, equipment's have helped in modernizing agriculture.
(iv.) Industries are also involved in producing fertilizers, pesticides, plastics and other tools for the farmers.
(v.) Agro based industries have also provided employment in the rural areas.
Ques 8: How are 'movements' different from interest groups? Explain with examples. (3)
pressure groups do not aim to directly
Movements have a loose organisation.
Their decisions are always bent on fulfilling their specific interest
Their decision making is more informal and flexible.
Interest groups are interest specific. Their existence is to function for the interest .
Movements are flexible, they can be issue specific movements that seek
Interest groups have an organisation
There is no single organisation that controls or guides such
Ques 9: Analyse any three values that make democracy better. (3 × 1 = 3)
Ans: The following could be some of the reasons why a democracy is a better form of government.
1. Freedom of expression granted in a democratic nation. For example, the role of media, it allows people to form groups, indulge in peaceful protests to vent their grievances.
2. It ensures transparency in its functioning. example the recent introduction of the Right to Information.
3. It enhances dignity of the individual. Democracies ensures rights to the individuals which allows them to develop to the fullest. Example Fundamental Rights.
4. It is more accountable form, of government. The fear of losing elections compels political parties to be responsive to the need of the people.
5. It ensures adequate power sharing and respect for minorities.
Ques 10: Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs popolar points etc., in shaping the nationalism during freedom struggle. (3)
Ans: In India the feeling of nationalism is associated with anti colonial movement. In the process of their struggle against the colonial yoke people began to discover their own identity of belonging to one nation. Various folk tales, songs, symbols like national flag, tricolour flag gave a sense of identity to the people. It gave a true picture of India's culture which was so rich and uncorrupted. They served to produce a sense of achievement and to glorify India's past. They boosted Indians self confidence who then strongly waged a war against the colonial rule.
1. National song like Vande matram instilled a sense of belongingness uniting people from different languages. Identity of India came to be associated with Bharat Mata was depicted as composed, divine, spiritual.
2. Folk tales, songs, hymns were used by our national leaders to give a sense of pride in our own culture.
3. Likewise Khadi, charka used by Mahatma Gandhi became symbols of agitation and resistance.
4. Folk tales, songs, literature used by nationalists gave a true picture of India's culture which was so rich and uncorrupted.
5. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths.
6. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India which he believed was a national literature.
Ques 11: How are 'local companies' benefited by collaborating with 'multinational companies'? Evaluate any three benefits. (3)
Ans: The following are the benefits for local companies by entering into joint production with the MNCs.
1.MNCs help finance additional investment such as new machines, etc.
2.MNCs help in the up gradation of technology for the local companies.
3.Created new opportunities for companies providing services like IT sector.
Ques 12: Describe any five efforts made to reform political parties in India. (5 × 1 = 5)
Ans: Some measures taken by government to reform political parties have been:
1. Anti defection law, which states that if any sitting MLA or MP changes his party, he will lose his seat in the legislature.
2. It is mandatory now for every candidate to furnish all details related to the assets, criminal cases pending.
3. Election Commission has made it mandatory for parties to hold regular elections a file income tax.
4.Recent judgement by Supreme Court that disqualifies convicted MP's and MLA's who have sentenced to more than two years of imprisonment by the lower court and whose appeal against their conviction is pending, and is debarred from contesting elections is considered to be the landmark decision by the apex court to clean the system
Other suggestions for reforms:
1. The financial accounts of the parties must be audited, this will decrease the role of private big business house donors.
2. State funding of political parties must be done to meet their election expenditure.
3. The accounts must be made available to public.
4. Parties must come under the ambit of Right to information to increase transparency in the system.
5. Common people must be encouraged to give donations to parties and such citizens must be exempted from income tax
6 Parties must encourage inner party democracy, have regular elections.
7. They must encourage participation of women,
Ques 13: 'Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.' Support the statement. (5)
Ans: Roadways still have an edge over railways in India because:
(a) construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography,
(c) roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas,
(d) road transport is economical intransportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
Ques 14: Analyse the main functions of 'political parties.' (5)
Ans: The functions of political parties are as follow:
1. They contest elections by putting up their selected candidates. Candidates are either selected by members and supporters of a party ( i.e.VSA) or top leaders chase candidates for contesting elections ( India).
2. Political parties offers different policies and programs and the voters have the right to choose from them. They reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it supports. It is the ruling party that decides lines and directions of ruling the government.
3. Political parties form and run governments and political executives from such party takes big policy decisions. They recruit leaders, train them and make them ministers to run the government as per their needs.
4. They play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
5. The losing political party plays the role of opposition to the parties in power. They raise their voice on government failures and wrong policies. These parties also mobilize opposition to the government.
6. Political parties shape public opinion as they raise and highlight important issues. They along with pressure groups touch movements in the interest of the people.
7. Political parties provide access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.
Ques 15: "Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi's ideas and the notion of 'Swaraj'." Support the statement. (5)
Ans: Workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of swaraj. For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages. They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Ques 16: Why are rules and regulations needed in the market? Explain with examples. (5)
Ans: Rules and regulations in a market place is a must because
1. A market, left to itself,cares oonly for powerful and those with the money at their disposal.
2. Wearker sections of the society are at the mercy of the sellers and are exploited by them.
3. Consumer constitue a large weaker section; they are expoited by powerful business interests.
Therefore it is necessary to protect the interests of consumer by laying down rules and regulations.
Ques 17: Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy. (2 + 3 = 5)
Ans: Following are the challenges faced by jute industries in India :
(i.) Prices of jute textiles are so low that industrialists hesitate to set up these industries.
(ii.) International demand of jute goods is falling sharply which is not an encouragement for these industries.
(iii.) Many countries now prefer substitutes for jute like plastic or synthetic fibres which reduces its demand.
(iv.) Our jute industries face hard competition from Brazil, Thailand, Bangladesh and Egypt whose production cost of jute textile is much lower than that of India.
(v.) As jute exhausts soil fertility very fast and also because of its low profits , farmers now prefer to cultivate alternative crops like Rice.
The government has taken the following steps to boost Jute production :
(i.) Government has made it compulsory in the country to use jute packaging.
(ii.) In 2005, our government formulated the National Jute policy with the following aims:
To expand production
To enhance quality
To provide good prices to the farmers
To enhance yield per hectare.
(iii.) With the increased awareness about environmental degradation many state governments have also banned the use of plastic bags and recommended jute or paper bags.