Ques 1: Why were big European powers met in Berlin in 1885?
Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move countryside in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?
Why did Charles Booth, a Liverpool ship owner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in the East End of London in 1887?
Ans: The year 1885 is significant in the history of colonisation because it was in this year that the Big European powers such as Britain and France met at Berlin and completed dividing Africa and distributing among them. They demarcated their respective territories. The trend of colonisation was set by these rival European powers which was followed by other nations later.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
To get a fair picture of the scene of poverty in the urban areas, Charles Booth conducted the survey in 1887. Although poverty was not unknown in the countryside, it was more concentrated and starkly visible in the city.
Ques 2: Why did the Roman Catholic Church impose control over publishers and booksellers?
Why do novels use vernacular?
Ans: Roman Catholic Church imposed control over publishers to control and repress the spread of heretical believes.
The novel uses the vernacular, the language that is spoken by common people. By coming closer to the different spoken languages of the people, the novel produces the sense of a shared world
between diverse people in a nation. Novels also draw from different styles of language