Board Paper Of Class 10 2018 Social Science Delhi(SET -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : Board Paper Of Class 10 2018 Social Science Delhi(SET -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Ques 1: Why were big European powers met in Berlin in 1885?

 OR

Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move countryside in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?

 OR

Why did Charles Booth, a Liverpool ship owner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in the East End of London in 1887?

Ans: The year 1885 is significant in the history of colonisation because it was in this year that the Big European powers such as Britain and France met at Berlin and completed dividing Africa and distributing among them. They demarcated their respective territories. The trend of colonisation was set by these rival European powers which was followed by other nations later.

OR

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.

OR

To get a fair picture of the scene of poverty in the urban areas, Charles Booth conducted the survey in 1887. Although poverty was not unknown in the countryside, it was more concentrated and starkly visible in the city.

Ques 2: Why did the Roman Catholic Church impose control over publishers and booksellers?

 OR

Why do novels use vernacular?

Ans: Roman Catholic Church imposed control over publishers to control and repress the spread of heretical believes.

OR

The novel uses the vernacular, the language that is spoken by common people. By coming closer to the different spoken languages of the people, the novel produces the sense of a shared world

between diverse people in a nation. Novels also draw from different styles of language

Ques 3: "The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s." Support this statement with examples. 

OR

Compare 'intensive subsistence farming' with that of 'commercial farming' practiced in India.

Ans: Many technological and institutional reforms were introduced by the Government of India . Some of the technological reforms in Indian agriculture are :
i.) The Green revolution brought HYV seeds, fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides etc.
ii.) The introduction of modern farm machineries to increase the productivity and decrease the time and labour input.
iii.) The helpline numbers and agriculture programmes on T.V. and radio for farmers are there to guide and help them in agriculture related activities.
iv.) Introduction of multiple cropping method, intensive farming and genetically improved seeds.
v.) The organic farming is the latest technological intervention in agriculture.

Various institutional reforms introduced by the government to increase the interest of the farmers include :
i.) Zamindari system have been abolished so that more land can be distributed among the poor farmers.
ii.) There has been consolidation of land holdings by combining small farms into larger ones and insisting individual land owners to engage in cooperative farming.
iii.) Some land reform measures have been taken.
iv.) Certain schemes like the Crop Insurance have been introduced to provide financial assistance to the farmers at the time of natural disasters, crop destruction by pests and diseases etc.
v.) Cooperative Societies and Grameen Banks have been introduced to provide loans to the farmers at low interests for making investments in agriculture.

OR

Intensive subsistence farming :


i.) Practised in areas of high population pressure on land.

ii.) Modern machineries are used

iii.) Labour intensive farming

iv.) Artificial irrigation is used

v.) high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production. Higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides

Commercial agriculture is large-scale production of crops for sale, intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets. In commercial farming crops such as wheat, maize, tea, coffee, sugarcane,cashew, rubber, banana, cotton are harvested and sold into world markets.


Commercial farming is most commonly found in advanced industrialized nations. The harvested crop may be processed on-site (or shipped to a processing facility belonging to the farm owners) and then sold to a wholesaler as a complete product, or it may be sold as-is for further processing elsewhere.

Ques 4: 'A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress.' Analyse the statement.

Ans: a. A challenge should not be regarded as a problem, but an opportunity for progress and further advancement.
b. Once country faces the foundational challenge of establishing a democracy of transforming itself from a non-democratic regime to a democratic one, it has to further move ahead.
c. A challenge of a foundation, is an opportunity to establish a democratic system, to have free and fair elections, to acknowledge the rights of the people.
d. Once county overcomes this challenge it has to expand democracy,  that is of taking democracy to the grass root level. Involving participation of all social groups empowering them. It implies sharing power with different regions, institutions and different groups so as to strengthen democracy and avoid the possibility of conflict in a society.
e. Then later it has to deepen democratic institutions through greater transparency.
It has to strengthen the institutions of democracy so as to ensure greater participation and control of the people. It would also mean making those institutions more transparent in their functioning and responsive to the needs of the people

Ques 5:  State any two goals of development other than income.

Ans: Education and job security.

Ques 6: When we produce goods by exploiting natural resoruces, in which category of economic sector such activities come?

Ans: Primary sector 

Ques 7: Give any two examples of informal sector of credit.

Ans: Money-lenders and landlords

Ques 8: Describe the impact of 'Rinderpest' on people's livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s.

   OR

Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in nineteenth

   OR

Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century.

Ans: Follwoing are the prime effects of Reinderpest:

1. Rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle.

2. The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.

3. It strengthened colonial government's power and Africans were forced into the             labour market which earlier they were reluctant to do due to abundance of land and livestock.

4. European colonisers thus conquered and subdued Africa. 

   OR

 The problems faced by the cotton weavers in India during 19th century are as follows:


• A long decline of textile exports from India

• The local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports.

• Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.

• Weaving regions of India narrated stories of decline and desolation.

• By the 1860s, weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.

• Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up.

• Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.

• Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine- goods.

 OR

 Following steps were taken to clean London in the 19th and 20th century:


1. Attempts were taken to spread out the tenements to the outskirts of the city.

2. More and more parks and green spaces were created to reduce pollution.A 'Green Belt' was created around London.

3. The architect Ebenezer Howard have designed the concept of Garden City full of trees and plants where people would both live and work.

4. A pollution free life was attempted for the city dwellers which would be a blend of city and nature.

5. Realising the necessity of good housing for the city dwellers, the Government built mostly single family cottages which were compact and convenient for residing.

Ques 9: "The 'Print Revolution' had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to information and knowledge." Analyse the statement.

                                                                             OR
Distinguish between the themes of 'Pride and Prejudice' and 'Jane Eyre' novels written by Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte respectively.

Ans: The transformation from hand printing to mechanical printing came to be known as print revolution.This revolution created a new dimension to human lives and made them more informed and knowledgeable.It generated awareness among the people and made them more practical. It influenced popular perceptions and opened up new ways of looking at things.Through the printed message, they could persuade people to think differently and introduced a new

world of debate and discussion. This had significance in different sphere of life. Religion was one field which was highly affected by the print revolution. Questiontiong the authority of the Roman Catholic Church by people such as Martin Luther was possible because of this change in perception.
 OR

The novels of Jane Austen give us a glimpse of the world of women in genteel rural society in early-nineteenth-century Britain. They make us think about a society which encouraged women to look for ‘good’ marriages and find wealthy or propertied husbands. The first sentence of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice states: ‘It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.’ This observation allows us to see the behaviour of the main characters, who are preoccupied with marriage and money, as typifying Austen’s society.

On the other hand, Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, published in 1874,dealt with women who broke established norms of society before adjusting to them. Such stories allowed women readers to sympathise with rebellious actions. Young Jane is shown as independent and assertive. While girls of her time were expected to be quiet and well behaved, Jane at the age of ten protests against the hypocrisy of her elders with startling bluntness.

Ques 10: How has the ever increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain.

Ans: Water is available in abundance, around three fourth of earth is covered with water. However, only a small proportion of it actually accounts for fresh water which can be put to use rest is saline water not suitable for human consumption.


i.) Water is a scarce resource and a life sustaining resource.

ii.) Water scarcity is the result of many factors, like industrialisation, urbanisation.

iii.) Post independence India pursued policy of rapid industrialisation to bring about growth and prosperity.

iv.) Rise of industrial units , their growing use of water became one of the factors for water scarcity.

v.) Apart from that industries need electricity remain operational and carry out production, much of their energy needs come from hydroelectric power.

vi.) Industrialisation has also impacted the quality of water, bad quality of water due to pollution, dumping of chemical and industrial waste, garbage dumping also accounts for shortage of water.

vii.) Unequal distribution of  water among different social groups also accounts for water scarcity. The poor in the rural areas blame the state  machinery of diverting water in urban areas and benefiting the rich and helping industrial outlets.

Ques 11: "Dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for local and national development." Analyse the statement.

Ans: A dense and efficient network of transportation and communication is essential for modern day trade for the following reasons :


i. It is necessary to carry raw materials to production centres and from manufacturing hubs to markets in as little time as possible to achieve efficiency. This is particularly true for perishable goods.


ii. It enables goods to reach newer markets and allows people greater accessibility to goods and services. Efficient transport network enables markets to expand to hinterland.


iii. Communication opens new avenues of commerce. Modern communication tools like internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances, facilitating electronic commerce and banking across countries and contributing to integration of markets. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.


iv. Development of a country depends upon production of goods and services as well as their transportation.

Ques 12: Describe any three provisions of amendment made in 'Indian Constitution'  in 1992 for making 'Three-Tier' government more effective and powerful.

Ans: Major step towards decentralization was taken in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

• It is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

• Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.

• At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

• An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.

• The State governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

Ques 13: Explain the three factors that are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions. 

Ans: The politics of social divisions can have very adverse consequences. This can happen in some of the following ways.


1. Such politics can deepen distrust between people of different communities.
2. Deepening distrust can lead to violence in the form of communal riots.
3. Rioting leads to severe loss of life and property and disruption of economic activities.
4. If economic activities get disrupted, then it affects the level of development in a region.
5. If distrust is not overcome, then it may even lead to the division of a state or even the country, as happened in India during partition.

You could have written any 3 points to fetch marks.

Ques 14: "Secularism is not an ideology of some political parties or persons, but it is one of the foundations of our country." Examine the statement.

Ans: Secularism means the non-interference of the state and the religion in the affairs of each other. In the Indian context, it refers to the freedom of an individual to practice the religion of her/his choice. India is a secular state as the state has no religion of its own. The Constitution of India guarantees equality of all religions and prohibits discrimination against any individual on grounds of religion.

Secularism in India is practised in the following manner:

a. Indian Secularism is based on the principle of Equal respect for all religions, where State respects every religious community and their sentiments.
b. It guarantees right to freedom of religion to all, allows everyone to freely practise, profess and propagate one's religious beliefs .
c. The state does not favour any particular religion, nor it promotes any particular religion.
d.  Indian secularism practises an attitude of a principled and equal distance from all religions.
e.  The State will not interfere in the religious practises of any religion. For example, Sikhs are allowed to wear Turbans, which is their religious symbol.
f. However, this does not mean that our principle of Secularism is absolute, State practises principled distance where it can initiate state sponsored reform , to deal with certain religious practises which are discriminatory and unjust, like caste.
g. Government for instance has abolished sati, untouchability for the purpose of reforming Hindu religion. Any interference by the State in religion is to be based on the ideals laid down in the constitution.

Ques 15: How is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with examples.

Ans: The issue of sustainability is important for development because development must be in tandem with the future. If natural resources are not sustained, then development will stagnate after a point of time. Exploiting resources unethically will ultimately undo the development that a country may have achieved. This is because in the future, those resources will not be available for further progress.


Meeting the basic needs of all that requires distribution of resources is our moral responsibility. It becomes a moral obligation to hand over the earth to the future generation in good order. But, it is realised that if the resources (non renewable) are utilised fully then these will deplete so fast that it will not meet the production capacity of the future generation. The economic development achieved today in such manner cannot be sustained for a long time as the production capacity of the future generations in absence of productive resources reduces. Therefore, sustainable development is the process of economic development that aims at meeting the needs of the present generation without comprising the needs of the future generations. Sustainable development maximises welfare of both present and future generations. In other words, it is that process of economic growth that is sustained over a long period of time without causing any fall in quality of life of the future generations.

Ques 16: Distinguish the service conditions of organized sector with that of unorganized sector 

Ans: The employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors are vastly different. The organised sector has companies registered with the government and hence, it offers job security, paid holidays, pensions, health and other benefits, fixed working hours and extra pay for overtime work.


On the other hand, the unorganised sector is a host of opposites. There is no job security, no paid holidays or pensions on retirement, no benefits of provident fund or health insurance, unfixed working hours and no guarantee of safe work environment.

Ques 17: Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country's development? Explain any three reasons. 

Ans: Cheap and affordable credit is essential for a country's development as it is a catalyst for encouraging entrepreneurship and self-employment. It encourages people to start their own business, small-scale industries, gives a boost to economy and prevents people from getting caught in a debt-trap. It enables people to borrow for meeting their various requirements and is of particular benefit to those engaged in agriculture. It also means that a larger part of the borrower's earnings can be reinvested in the economy rather than repayment.


Credit plays a crucial role in a country’s development. By sanctioning loans to developing industries and trade, banks provide them with the necessary aid for improvement. This leads to increased production, employment and profits. However, caution must be exercised in the case of high risks so that losses do not occur. This advantage of loans also needs to be manipulated and kept under an administrative hold because loans from the informal sector include high interest rates that may be more harmful than good. For this reason, it is important that the formal sector gives out more loans so that borrowers are not duped by moneylenders, and can ultimately contribute to national development.

Ques 18: How can consumer awareness be spread among consumers to avoid exploitation in the market place? Explain any three ways.

Ans: Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market because lack of awareness makes consumers easy prey to exploitation.The awareness will help them to know about their rights ,the quality of the products,expire dates,adulteration etc so,that if they are deceived by the sellers they will  take their cases to consumer courts where the justice is given to the victims.

A consumer is an individual (or a group of individuals)who consumes the final goods and services for personal use and not for re-sale or manufacturing. Consumer Awareness refers to the concept of making the consumer aware of his/her rights. It ensures that the consumers are well acquainted with their rights and duties regarding matters such as the choice between various products, right information about all the commodities, safety of the products he is consuming, a right to be heard in case of dispute, etc.


Ques 19: Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe.

OR

Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

Ans: Following factors were responsible for making Balkans the most tensed region in Europe in 1871:

• The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.

• As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.

• The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others.

• Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.

OR

Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. The elites in Vietnam were educated in Chinese and Confucianism. But religious beliefs among the peasantry were shaped by a variety of syncretic traditions that combined Buddhism and local beliefs. Christianity, introduced by French missionaries, was intolerant of this easygoing attitude and viewed the Vietnamese tendency to revere the supernatural as something to be corrected. This turned many religious movements hostile to the Western presence .Scholars movement in 1868 and the Hoa Hoa led to uprisings and attracted the masses by widespreading and developing anti colonial feeling in Vietnam.

Ques 20: How did Non-Cooperation movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front.


OR
 

Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Ans: The Non-Cooperation movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power – something that usually only Brahmans had access to.

The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
 OR

Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives. And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.

Another important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

Ques 21: 
Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? Explain with examples.

Ans: Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because of the following reasons: :


i.) Manufacturing sector help in modernising agriculture which is considered as backbone of our economy. It also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

ii.) Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India.

iii.) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

iv.) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.

v.) Hence, India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries at a faster phase. It can also be said that economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.

Ques 22: Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy.

Ans: Main functions of a political party:

(i) To contest elections:

In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways. In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections,


(ii) Forming policies and programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society.

(iii) Making laws:

When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions.

(iv) Parties form and run governments:

Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

(v) Role of opposition:

Parties that lose in elections, play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies.

(vi) Shaping public opinion:

They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over country. Many of the pressure groups are the extension of political parties among different sections of society. Parties, sometimes also launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by people.

(vii) Access to government machinery and welfare schemes:

For an ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties even when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people's needs and demands.


Ques 23: "Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual." Justify this statement.

OR

"Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens." Justify this statement.

Ans: Democracy today has emerged as the most popular form of governemnt.There may be flaws  in the actual practice of democracy.Democratic form of government has been questioned on various fronts that it leads to instability, it is about competition and power, gives importance to numbers, leads to delays in decision making process, even democracies track record with that of economic development has been questioned, but nevertheless democracy is the most preferred and better form of government than any any other forms for the very reason that it ensures people's participation guaranteeing them basic rights that enhances their dignity.

Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens of a country in the following ways:

• Recognition of the principle of equality becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally.

• Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. Perhaps it is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

• A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project: it transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen. Most individuals today believe that their vote makes a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interest.

OR

1)  Democracy is a better form of government when compared to other government systems due to many reasons

2)  They promote equality among citizens and it enhances the dignity of the individuals
3)  It improves the quality of decision making, and hence, it provides a method to resolve conflicts.
4)   Democratic government is accountable to the citizens and hence responsive to the needs and welfare of citizens
5)  Democracies conduct free and fair elections and hence, it is evident that democracy leads to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens

Equal status and treatment is given to all citizens belonging to different caste, communities etc in India and this is the reason why people belonging to different religions, caste, lead peaceful and harmonious life here

Ques 24: How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries? Explain with examples.

OR

How do we feel the impact of globalization on our daily life? Explain with examples.

Ans: Foreign Trade leads to the integration of markets around the world in the following ways :


i) Exports and imports - Producers can make available their goods in markets beyond domestic ones via exports. Likewise, buyers have more choice on account of imports from other countries. For example, Japanese electronic items are imported to India, and have proved to be a tough competition for less-technologically-advanced companies here.

ii) Opening of trade - The opening of trade creates an opportunity for producers to reach beyond the domestic market, by selling their goods within the country as well as around the world.

iii.) Greater choice available to consumers - The consumers have access to goods produced in another country. Consequently, they have a wider choice of goods, with the option of exercising their choice of one over the other. In a closed domestic market, this situation would not be possible.

iv.) Supply chain linkages- Raw materials produced in one country are exported, processed and used for manufacturing in another country. This builds up links in supply chain that stimulate demand in international markets.

v.) Price equilibrium - The prices of similar goods in the two markets tend to become equal, in order to survive in the competition.

vi.) Competition between Producers - Producers in different countries and markets compete with each other for access to consumers.


vii.) Balance of payments – Countries may choose to make payments in different modes to offset any imbalances in exports and imports on account of trade with a particular country. For example, current international sanctions against Iran have resulted in the inability of Indian government to pay for oil imports from Iran in dollars. As a result, the payments are now sought to be made in either Indian rupees or through export of goods. Infrastructure investments are also mooted to pay for these imports.

OR

Impact of globalisation on our lives are given below :


Positive impact:


i.) MCSs have increased their investments in india.eg, industries like cell phones, automobiles etc.

ii.) New jobs were created

iii.) Competition raised production standards

iv.) Companies benefitted from increased competition

v.) Made collaborations and emerged mnc's


Negative impact:


i.) Small manufacturers have been hit hard due to foreign competition

ii.) Educated and unskilled workers have become jobless due to closure of various units

iii.) Globalisation has a negative impact on most of the small industries which employ the largest number of workers after agriculture


Ques 25: (A) Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India.

 Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them:
 (a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
 (b) The place where Gandhiji organized 'Satyagraha' in favour of cotton mill workers.

(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline political map of India.

 (i) Raja Sansi – International Airport
 (ii) Bhadravati – Iron and Steel Plant
 (iii) Software Technology Park of West Bengal

Ans: Board Paper Of Class 10 2018 Social Science Delhi(SET -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

          
Ques 26: 'A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress.' Analyse the statement. 

Ans: a. A challenge should not be regarded as a problem, but an opportunity for progress and further advancement.
b. Once country faces the foundational challenge of establishing a democracy of transforming itself from a non-democratic regime to a democratic one, it has to further move ahead.
c. A challenge of a foundation, is an opportunity to establish a democratic system, to have free and fair elections, to acknowledge the rights of the people.
d. Once county overcomes this challenge it has to expand democracy,  that is of taking democracy to the grass root level. Involving participation of all social groups empowering them. It implies sharing power with different regions, institutions and different groups so as to strengthen democracy and avoid the possibility of conflict in a society.
e. Then later it has to deepen democratic institutions through greater transparency.
It has to strengthen the institutions of democracy so as to ensure greater participation and control of the people. It would also mean making those institutions more transparent in their functioning and responsive to the needs of the people

Ques 27: Classify resources on the basis of origin. 

Ans: Biotic resources are the living resources like humana, beings, animals, etc.

Abiotic resources are the non-living resources like rocks, coals, etc. 

Ques 28 : Explain the three factors that are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.

Ans: The politics of social divisions can have very adverse consequences. This can happen in some of the following ways.


1. Such politics can deepen distrust between people of different communities.
2. Deepening distrust can lead to violence in the form of communal riots.
3. Rioting leads to severe loss of life and property and disruption of economic activities.
4. If economic activities get disrupted, then it affects the level of development in a region.
5. If distrust is not overcome, then it may even lead to the division of a state or even the country, as happened in India during partition.  

You could have written any 3 points to fetch marks.

Ques 29: Describe any three provisions of amendment made in 'Indian Constitution'  in 1992 for making 'Three-Tier' government more effective and powerful.

Ans: Major step towards decentralization was taken in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

• It is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

• Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.

• At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.

• An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.

• The State governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

Ques 30: Distinguish the service conditions of organized sector with that of unorganized sector. 

Ans: The employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors are vastly different. The organised sector has companies registered with the government and hence, it offers job security, paid holidays, pensions, health and other benefits, fixed working hours and extra pay for overtime work.

On the other hand, the unorganised sector is a host of opposites. There is no job security, no paid holidays or pensions on retirement, no benefits of provident fund or health insurance, unfixed working hours and no guarantee of safe work environment.


Ques 31: How can consumer awareness be spread among consumers to avoid exploitation in the market place? Explain any three ways.

Ans: Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market because lack of awareness makes consumers easy prey to exploitation.The awareness will help them to know about their rights ,the quality of the products,expire dates,adulteration etc so,that if they are deceived by the sellers they will  take their cases to consumer courts where the justice is given to the victims.

A consumer is an individual (or a group of individuals)who consumes the final goods and services for personal use and not for re-sale or manufacturing. Consumer Awareness refers to the concept of making the consumer aware of his/her rights. It ensures that the consumers are well acquainted with their rights and duties regarding matters such as the choice between various products, right information about all the commodities, safety of the products he is consuming, a right to be heard in case of dispute, etc. 


Ques 32: "Dense and efficient network of transport is a pre-requisite for local and national development." Analyse the statement.

Ans: A dense and efficient network of transportation and communication is essential for modern day trade for the following reasons :

i. It is necessary to carry raw materials to production centres and from manufacturing hubs to markets in as little time as possible to achieve efficiency. This is particularly true for perishable goods.
ii. It enables goods to reach newer markets and allows people greater accessibility to goods and services. Efficient transport network enables markets to expand to hinterland.
iii. Communication opens new avenues of commerce. Modern communication tools like internet allow commercial transactions to take place over large distances, facilitating electronic commerce and banking across countries and contributing to integration of markets. They also keep buyers and sellers informed about their present and prospective markets.
iv. Development of a country depends upon production of goods and services as well as their transportation.


Ques 33: How has the ever increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing fresh water resources? Explain.

Ans: Water is available in abundance, around three fourth of earth is covered with water. However, only a small proportion of it actually accounts for fresh water which can be put to use rest is saline water not suitable for human consumption.

i.) Water is a scarce resource and a life sustaining resource.
ii.) Water scarcity is the result of many factors, like industrialisation, urbanisation.
iii.) Post independence India pursued policy of rapid industrialisation to bring about growth and prosperity.
iv.) Rise of industrial units , their growing use of water became one of the factors for water scarcity.
v.) Apart from that industries need electricity remain operational and carry out production, much of their energy needs come from hydroelectric power.
vi.) Industrialisation has also impacted the quality of water, bad quality of water due to pollution, dumping of chemical and industrial waste, garbage dumping also accounts for shortage of water.
vii.) Unequal distribution of  water among different social groups also accounts for water scarcity. The poor in the rural areas blame the state  machinery of diverting water in urban areas and benefiting the rich and helping industrial outlets.


Ques 34: Describe the impact of 'Rinderpest' on people's livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s.

 

OR

Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in nineteenth

 

OR

Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during nineteenth century.

Ans: Follwoing are the prime effects of Reinderpest:

1. Rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the cattle.

2. The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.

3. It strengthened colonial government's power and Africans were forced into the labour market which earlier they were reluctant to do due to abundance of land and livestock.

4. European colonisers thus conquered and subdued Africa. 

OR


The problems faced by the cotton weavers in India during 19th century are as follows:

• A long decline of textile exports from India

• The local market shrank, being glutted with Manchester imports.

• Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.

• Weaving regions of India narrated stories of decline and desolation.

• By the 1860s, weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.

• Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up.

• Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In this, situation weaving could not pay.

• Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine- goods.
 

OR
 

Following steps were taken to clean London in the 19th and 20th century:

1. Attempts were taken to spread out the tenements to the outskirts of the city.
2. More and more parks and green spaces were created to reduce pollution.A 'Green Belt' was created around London.
3. The architect Ebenezer Howard have designed the concept of Garden City full of trees and plants where people would both live and work.
4. A pollution free life was attempted for the city dwellers which would be a blend of city and nature.
5. Realising the necessity of good housing for the city dwellers, the Government built mostly single family cottages which were compact and convenient for residing.

Ques 35:"Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual." Justify this statement.


OR

"Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens." Justify this statement.

Ans: Democracy today has emerged as the most popular form of governemnt.There may be flaws  in the actual practice of democracy.Democratic form of government has been questioned on various fronts that it leads to instability, it is about competition and power, gives importance to numbers, leads to delays in decision making process, even democracies track record with that of economic development has been questioned, but nevertheless democracy is the most preferred and better form of government than any any other forms for the very reason that it ensures people's participation guaranteeing them basic rights that enhances their dignity.

Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens of a country in the following ways:

• Recognition of the principle of equality becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally.

• Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. Perhaps it is the recognition that makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

• A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project: it transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen. Most individuals today believe that their vote makes a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interest.

OR

1)  Democracy is a better form of government when compared to other government systems due to many reasons

2)  They promote equality among citizens and it enhances the dignity of the individuals
3)  It improves the quality of decision making, and hence, it provides a method to resolve conflicts.
4)   Democratic government is accountable to the citizens and hence responsive to the needs and welfare of citizens
5)  Democracies conduct free and fair elections and hence, it is evident that democracy leads to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens

Equal status and treatment is given to all citizens belonging to different caste, communities etc in India and this is the reason why people belonging to different religions, caste, lead peaceful and harmonious life here

Ques 36: How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries? Explain with examples.

OR
How do we feel the impact of globalization on our daily life? Explain with examples.

Ans: Foreign Trade leads to the integration of markets around the world in the following ways :

i) Exports and imports - Producers can make available their goods in markets beyond domestic ones via exports. Likewise, buyers have more choice on account of imports from other countries. For example, Japanese electronic items are imported to India, and have proved to be a tough competition for less-technologically-advanced companies here.

ii) Opening of trade - The opening of trade creates an opportunity for producers to reach beyond the domestic market, by selling their goods within the country as well as around the world.

iii.) Greater choice available to consumers - The consumers have access to goods produced in another country. Consequently, they have a wider choice of goods, with the option of exercising their choice of one over the other. In a closed domestic market, this situation would not be possible.

iv.) Supply chain linkages- Raw materials produced in one country are exported, processed and used for manufacturing in another country. This builds up links in supply chain that stimulate demand in international markets.

v.) Price equilibrium - The prices of similar goods in the two markets tend to become equal, in order to survive in the competition.

vi.) Competition between Producers - Producers in different countries and markets compete with each other for access to consumers.

vii.) Balance of payments – Countries may choose to make payments in different modes to offset any imbalances in exports and imports on account of trade with a particular country. For example, current international sanctions against Iran have resulted in the inability of Indian government to pay for oil imports from Iran in dollars. As a result, the payments are now sought to be made in either Indian rupees or through export of goods. Infrastructure investments are also mooted to pay for these imports. 

OR


Impact of globalisation on our lives are given below :


Positive impact:


i.) MCSs have increased their investments in india.eg, industries like cell phones, automobiles etc.

ii.) New jobs were created

iii.) Competition raised production standards

iv.) Companies benefitted from increased competition

v.) Made collaborations and emerged mnc's


Negative impact:


i.) Small manufacturers have been hit hard due to foreign competition

ii.) Educated and unskilled workers have become jobless due to closure of various units

iii.) Globalisation has a negative impact on most of the small industries which employ the largest number of workers after agriculture

Ques 37: Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy.

Ans: Main functions of a political party:

(i) To contest elections:

In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways. In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections,


(ii) Forming policies and programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society.

(iii) Making laws:

When parties come to power, they make laws for the country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions.

(iv) Parties form and run governments:

Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

(v) Role of opposition:

Parties that lose in elections, play the role of opposition to the parties in power by criticising the government for its failures or wrong policies.

(vi) Shaping public opinion:

They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over country. Many of the pressure groups are the extension of political parties among different sections of society. Parties, sometimes also launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by people.

(vii) Access to government machinery and welfare schemes:

For an ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties even when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people's needs and demands.

Ques 38: Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? Explain with examples.

Ans: Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because of the following reasons: :

i.) Manufacturing sector help in modernising agriculture which is considered as backbone of our economy. It also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

ii.) Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India.

iii.) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

iv.) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.

v.) Hence, India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries at a faster phase. It can also be said that economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries. 


Ques 39: How did Non-Cooperation movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front.


OR
 

Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.

Ans:The Non-Cooperation movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power – something that usually only Brahmans had access to.

The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

OR
 Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives. And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.

Another important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

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