Ques 1: Explain the meaning of 'Currency'.
Explain the reason for necessity of supervision by the Reserve Bank of India of formal sources of loans.
Ans: Any form of money that is approved by the government and used by public for trading is known as currency. It can be soft money in the form of rupees or hard money in the form of coins. Every country has its own currency. For example, currency of India is Rupees.
The RBI monitors that the banks actually maintain the cash balance. The RBI sees that the banks give loan not just to profit-making businesses and traders but also to small cultivators, small-scale industries, small borrowers, etc. Periodically, banks have to submit information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rate, etc.
Ques 2: Which type of soil is most suitable for growing the crop of cashew nut?
Which type of soil in India is most widespread and important?
Ans: Sandy soil or sandy-loamy soil is best suited for the cultivation of cashew nuts.
Alluvial soil is the most important soil of India because it is highly fertile soil, it is rich in humus, it is found in northern plains like Punjab, UP, etc. And is ideal for cultivating sugarcane, wheat, etc.
Ques 3: Why had some parents kept novels away from their children's reach during 19th century in India?
Why had Englishmen demanded a clamp down on the 'Vernacular Press' in the 19th century?
Ans: Novels contained even some bold subjects which were considered unsuitable for children.
Enraged Englishman demanded a clamp down on the 'native' press because they did not want another revolt to occur like the revolt of 1857. The vernacular press became assertively nationalist and circulated anti colonial views among the common masses. Hence restrictions were imposed on the vernacular press so that it cannot produce editorials or articles that goes against the British.
Ques 4: Name the country where the Constitution was amended four times to accommodate the regional differences and cultural diversities.
Ques 5: Why did Frédéric Sorrieu present utopian vision in his prints in 1848? Explain one reason.
Why was the Tonkin Free School started in Vietnam? Explain one reason.
Ans: Utopian refers to a vision of society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to exist. A French artist in 1848 by name, Frederic Sorrieu prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’.
The first print shows the people of Europe and America, men and women of all age and social classes, marching in a long train or line, and offering homage to the statue of Liberty as they pass by it. During the time of French Revolution, Liberty was personified as female figure. In the print, the torch of Enlightenment can be found in one hand, and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other hand.3
In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the peoples of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags, and national costumes. Sorrieu created the image to unify the disintegrated states into a nation – state under a democratic constitution.
The Tonkin Free school was started in 1907.
This school was started to provide a western style education.
The western education included classes in science,hygiene and French.
Ques 6: Analyse the contribution of fast transport in globalisation.
Ans: Technological advancements have stimulated the process of globalisation in the following manner :
Technological advancements have helped in expanding the production of goods and services and encouraged greater trade among the nation states.
It also contributed to the growth of railways, ships, airways and further innovations for easier transportation of goods and mobility of people.
Technological changes have led to the increased awareness among people, telecommunication and growth of electronic media. Internet has also helped in the greater exchange of ideas and beliefs among the people.
Ques 7: Which logo of quality is marked on the electrical instruments?
Ans: ISI mark
Ques 8: "Multi-purpose projects and large dams have been the cause of many new social movements." Highlight the concerns related to such movements.
Ans: Concerns related to social movements which were raised due to multi-purpose river valley projects :
Environmental issues related to cutting and destruction of trees
Rehabilitation of the displaced people
Compensation from govt. for their crops and house
The process by which rain water is collected and stored either to recharge the ground water or for use in the future is known as rainwater harvesting. The method or setup used for rainwater harvesting is known as rainwater harvesting system.
The rainwater on the roofs of the buildings is collected through canals that drain the water into ground reservoirs. This stored water is later utilized.
They recharge the ground water.
They can be used for drinking and other domestic purpose.
Water can be used throughout the year.
Reduce storm water discharges, urban floods and overloading of sewage treatment plants.
Reduce seawater ingress in coastal areas.
They act as water for irrigation.
Ques 9: Describe the importance of the 'Right to Information (RTI)' for consumers.
Describe the importance of the 'Right to Seek Redressal' for consumers.
Ans: The Right to Information Act empowers all Indian Citizens to seek information from public authorities, which includes central, state and local governments, Parliament, judiciary, police etc. Under RTI, a citizen can ask question, seek information, take copies of official documents, inspect government work and its progress.
RTI has helped the citizens in a following manner :
It has empowered them.
It has made them aware about the functioning of the government machinery.
RTI has made citizens vigilant and made them more conscious about their rights and duties.
It has exposed various scams and and has helped citizens in making wise choices.
Right to seek redressal is defined a the right to seek compensation due to damage caused by unfair trade practices and exploitation. The compensation awarded depends on the degree of damage. Consumers have the right to get their claims settled in their favour in case of being cheated and exploited by the producers. Under the Consumer Protection Act 1986, a three tier judicial system has been formed. This act provides establishment of consumer disputes redressal agencies at district, state and national level. Consumers can invoke their right to redressal and right to represent. We may give the example of a person who is dissatisfied with services provided by say MTNL,BSNL, or Airtel and thereafter files a case at the consumer court.
Ques 10: Assess any three advantages of globalisation.
Assess any three advantages of multinational corporations.
Ans: Merits of globalisation are :
Local companies which supply raw materials to MNC's have prospered.
Globalisation has enabled large Indian companies to emerge as a multinational.For example- Tata motors,Infosys etc
Globalisation has also created new opportunities for companies providing services,particularly those involving IT.
Better quality of products arising from increased competition
Increases the purchasing power of an individual
Best practises of production gets disseminated across political boundaries.
Advantages of MNCs are :
Better employment opportunities
Employment of new technologies
Improvement in infrastructure
Availability of variety of goods
Ques 11: Highlight any three differences between primitive subsistence farming and commercial farming.
Ans: Primitive subsistence farming refers to agricultural practices that are utilised to meet the needs of one's family. The practices are rudimentary and do not involve the usage of modern technology. Thus, the resulting output is barely sufficient to meet the requirements of the individual cultivator and his/her family. Shifting cultivation and nomadic herding are examples of primitive subsistence agriculture.
In commercial farming, the crops grown and animals reared are for sale in the market. The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Machines are used for the most of the work. It is practised all over the world, mainly in developed countries. Plantation is an example of commercial farming.
Ques 12: "Average income is useful for comparison but it may hide disparities." Support the statement with suitable arguments.
Ans: Average income is calculated by the dividing the total sum of income by the total population of the country. It is used to make a comparative analysis of the position of the country since the total income can never be an indicator of economic health of the country and its people.
But it comes with its own limitations which are as follows:
It does not provide us with information regarding the non-economic goods and services.
Also, the average income does not reflect the true picture of the income distribution.
Ques 13: "Caste inequalities are still prevalent in India." Examine the statement.
Ans: Caste inequalities have not completely disappeared from India. Even today, most people marry within their own caste or tribe. Despite constitutional prohibition, Untouchability has not ended completely. Education is not easily available to the so called 'low castes'. Economic status is closely linked to the caste system. In modern India, like in pre-independent India, the poor are mostly the 'low castes' while the rich are the 'high castes', thereby showing that caste inequalities are still continuing in India.
Ques 14: Explain any three reasons for the banks and cooperative societies to increase their lending facilities in rural areas.
Ans: In order to improve credit situation in India, it is important to provide cheap loans and credit schemes must expand in rural households. To set up more banks in rural remote areas, making people ware about cooperatives, SHG's. These sources must extend their services in rural areas and try to reach out to all. Providing loans with reasonable interest rate, generating greater awareness among people about formal sources so as to reduce their dependence on informal sector. It will also prevent people from getting exploited through borrowings from informal sources. To serve as building blocks for rural households. This will help people to start up their small business, or trade in certain goods. It can also help farmers to expand cultivation, to diversify their production. People can also set up small scale industries. It can certainly be a an engine of growth.
Ques 15: Describe the role of Romanticism in developing nationalist feelings among Europeans during nineteenth century.
Describe Hao Hao movement as a mainstream nationalism of Vietnam.
Ans: Romanticism, a cultural movement, sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. It generally criticised the glorification of reason and Science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Its effort was to
create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
Romanticism is a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
The Hoa Hoa movement was found by Huynh Phu So in 1939. It gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong Delta area. It drew on religious ideas popular in anti - French uprisings of the nineteenth century. Huynh Phu So 's criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol. French put him in mental asylum. Interestingly, the doctor who had to prove him insane became his follower in 1941 and even the French doctors declared that he was sane. The French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
Ques 16: "Issues of caste discrimination began to be written about in many printed tracts and essays in India in the late nineteenth century." Support the statement with two suitable examples.
"Premchand's characters in different novels create a community based on democratic values." Support the statement with two suitable examples
Ans: Jyotiba Phule was the Maratha leader of ‘low caste’ protest movements. He wrote about the inequalities of the caste system in his work called Gulamgiri in 1871.
E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker and B.R. Ambedkar wrote about caste based discrimination in the society. Their works were popular all over the country.
Regional protest movements and parties also published many periodicals and articles condemning the religious writings and foreseeing a new outlook.
Kashibaba, a millworker in Kanpur authored Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in 1938 to show the relations between class and caste mistreatment.
Cotton millworkers of Bangalore started libraries to educate themselves in 1930; the same was first initiated by the Bombay mill workers.
It is observed that Premchand’s novels are filled with all kinds of powerful characters drawn from all levels of society. In his novels the characters are drawn from daily life experiences. One might notice characters like aristocrats and landlords, middle level peasants and landless labourers, middle-class professionals and people from the margins of society. The women characters are strong individuals, especially those who come from the lower classes and are not modernised. The central character of his novel Rangbhoomi (The Arena), Surdas, is a visually impaired beggar from a so-called 'untouchable' caste. One can see Surdas struggling to get back the land that had forcibly taken away from him.
Ques 17: Evaluate the strengths and limitations of local self-government in a democracy.
Evaluate the power sharing system in India.
Ans: Panchayat Raj system ensures greater participation of people in rural development programmes. Panchayats function as institutions of self – governance and it settles disputes between villages and individuals and this power has been decentralized by Government of India to function at village level. Gram Panchayat is responsible for the construction and maintenance of water sources, roads, drainages, and other common property resources.
Demerits of Local self government :
There is no proper distribution of power. question such on what basis the work is assigned, who is eligible, qualification required are not answered.
Insufficient funds- this problem hinders the actual purpose of self government due to limited financial powers.
Indirect election to the panchati raj allows for corrupt practises.
The different power sharing forms in modern democracies are as follows :
Power is shared among different organs of a government such as the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
Power is shared among governments at different levels. Example: a government for the entire country and governments for different regions in the country.
Power is shared among social groups such as linguistic groups, religious groups, etc.
Power is shared among political parties, movements and pressure groups. They try to control and influence the one in power.
Ques 18: "Complaints are treated as testimony to the success of democracy." Support the statement with examples.
Ans: Complaints are treated as a testimony to the success of democracy as they highlight the awareness of people and their expectations from the system that has been put in place. It reflects that they are not overawed by those in power and can objectively and critically examine the difference they have made. It is a measure of their participation in public debates which democracy seeks to encourage. Constant complaints by people can be seen as a testimony to the success of a democracy in the following ways
It reflects the awareness level of the people
It recognises people movement as an integral part of democracy
Ques 19: Why did Mahatma Gandhi start the 'Civil Disobedience Movement'? How did this movement unite the country? Explain.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the 'Non-Cooperation Movement'? How did this movement unite the country? Explain.
Ans: The Civil Disobedience Movement led by M.K. Gandhi, in the year 1930 was an important milestone in the history of Indian Nationalism.
1. Economic depression on Indian economy :
a. Agricultural prices began to fall and collapsed in 1930.
b. Demand for agricultural goods declined.
c. It became difficult for the peasants to sell their harvest and pay revenue.
d. The entire country was in crisis.
e. It helped in reshaping the national movement.
2. Failure of the Simon commission :
a. The British appointed Simon Commission in 1927 . It was to examine the functioning of the constitutional system in India.
b. The main pupose was to determine India's fitness for self governemnt.
c. Since the Commission did not have a single Indian member it was seen as an insult to the self respect of Indians.
d. Leaders boycotted the commission and greeted it with Black flags and slogans 'Simon go back'.
e. British retaliated in a brutal manner, with lathi charge in which Lala Lajpat Rai was fatally wounded
3. Oppressive salt laws :
a. To wage a struggle against the oppressive British policies and laws, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands on 31st January 1930. These demands represented the general interests and which all the classes identified with.
b. The most important demand was to abolish salt tax.
c. Since salt was consumed by rich and poor alike and was one of the most essential food items. The salt tax levied by the government revealed the most oppressive side of the colonial. rule.
d. Salt was seen by Mahatma Gandhi as a powerful symbol that could unite masses.
e. The eleven demands served as an ultimatum to the government failing to fulfill which he would resort to his agenda of swaraj. , These demands represented the general interests and which all the classes identified with.The most important demand was to abolish salt tax.
f. The colonial government failed to concede to the demands,
g. Hereby, Gandhi chose to break the salt law peacefully and show resistance to the British rule. This instigated the Civil disobedience movement and the salt march to Dandi.
The following were the main features of the Civil Disobedience movement:
a) The people refused to obey unjust laws. Gandhi led the Dandi March and broke the unjust salt tax law as a challenge to the British Government.
b) Foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and taxes. People also broke the forest laws.
c) Schools, colleges and government offices and institutions were boycotted.
d) There was large- scale arrest of people and leaders who participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Gandhiji launched the Non-cooperation movement of 1921 because :
According to Gandhiji , the British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. So time has arrived o withdraw cooperation to the British.
First World War added to the misery of the Indian people. Heavy taxes, high prices, famines and epidemics made people’s life miserable.
Rowlatt Act invited large scale protests throughout the country.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and the injustice done to Punjab made Indians angry which need to be avenged.
To restore the status of the ruler of Turkey.
To bring Swaraj or Self Rule to India.
Mahatma Gandhi declared that the main objectives of the non cooperation movement were :
To cripple the British administration and make them realize that they cannot function without the actual support of the Indians.
To avenge the wrong done by the Government in Punjab (Jallianwala Bagh Massacre) in a non violent way.
To bring about unity among the people. To inculcate a sense of nationalism.
To promote khadi and to attain Swaraj.
Ques 20: Explain the reasons for concentration of iron and steel industries in and around Chotanagpur region.
Ans: The reasons are as follows :
The earliest industries in India developed near the sources of raw material. and Chhotanagpur plateau being concentrated with iron ore is a good place for industries.
Transport is required for carrying raw materials to manufacturing units and finished products to the market.
The availability of both unskilled and skilled, or technically qualified manpower, is an important factor in the location of industries.
Water is required to produce hydel power and in the process of manufacturing for cleaning, cooling, washing, etc. The industries which heavily depend on water, for one purpose or the other, include iron and steel (for cooling).
The iron and steel industry has been traditionally tied with the coal resources, as it uses coking coal for fuel.
Ques 21: Explain the role of Political Parties in a democracy.
Explain the necessity of Political Parties in a democracy.
Ans: Political parties are beneficial because they are representative in nature and work as a safe and organised presentation of the public interest. The following roles are played by political parties in a democracy:
They provide a platform and representation to various sections of society.
They provide a platform for public debates and articulation of different opinions.
They contest elections and form government. Thus, they are a vehicle of democracy.
They give shape to policies and legislations on the basis of their election manifestos.
The need or necessity for political parties are:
Need for aggregation, articulation and organisation of interests
Useful for political culture in a country
Useful for the education of electorates and electoral processes
Diversity of options for electorates in a democracy
Make policy for the people when in government
Act as opposition when not in government
Ques 22: Explain the importance of Railways as a means of transport.
Ans: Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Railways also make it possible to conduct many activities like business, sightseeing, and pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances. Apart from an important means of transport the Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. The Indian Railway have a network of more than 7133 stations spread over a route length of 64,460 km with a fleet of 9213 locomotives, 53,220 passenger service vehicles, 6,493 other coach vehicles and 2,29,381 wagons as on March 2011. The Northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for the growth of railways. The development of Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in this most important economic region of India. Thus, it has been rightly said that Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of industry and agriculture.
Ques 23: Describe any five features of secularism in India.
Ans: Features of Indian secularism are :
Equal respect and recognition for all religions by the state.
No discrimination by the state between citizens on the basis of religion.
Non-interference in the functioning of any religion by the state.
No official religion in India.
An individual has the right to practice, propagate and profess any religion.
Ques 24: Describe the condition of indentured labour that migrated from India during the nineteenth century.
Describe the role of early entrepreneurs of India in the development of industries.
Describe the 'land reclamation' process in Bombay during the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries.
Ans: Indentured labour is a bonded labour who is hired on contract for a specific employer for a specific period of time.
The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (Mainly Trinidad,), Mauritius and Fiji. Tamil migrants went to Ceylon and Malaya. Indentured workers were also recruited for tea plantation in Assam.
Recruitments were done by the agents engaged by employers.
Nineteenth century indenture has been described as a ‘new system of slavery’.
Living and working conditions of indentured labourers were harsh and few legal rights were granted to them.
Labourers assimilated themselves with the culture of the new place. In Trinidad, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called ‘Hosay’ in which workers of all races and religion joined. ‘Chutney music,’ popular in Trinidad and Guyana, is another creative contemporary expression of the post indenture experience.
Indenture labour migration was abolished officially in 1921.
Indian entrepreneurs play a vital role in foreign trade. They have managed to foster Indian products in the foreign market and give an international recognition to the Indian products. They have traded their products with outside countries and made them popular.
The British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England. Many Indians participated in this trade by providing finance, procuring supplies and shipping consignments. In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade and established six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
In Bombay, Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India. They accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China and partly from raw cotton shipments to England. Merchants from Madras traded with Burma, Middle East and East Africa. Other trading activities included carrying goods from one place to another, banking, transferring funds between cities and financing traders. However, Indian traders were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods and had to export raw materials and food grains required by the British. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business.
Land reclamation in Bombay was created by including seven islands joined into one landmass.The earliest project began in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
Land reclamation is a process by which new land is created from the sea. It is done by creating barriers for stopping sea water from submerging a particular land area. The reclaimed land is then dried up and used for human activities. The city of Bombay was formed by reclaiming a large tract of land from sea and joining the seven islands of Bombay into one. The need for additional commercial space in the mid-19thcentury led to the formulation of several government and private plans for the reclamation of more land from sea. In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation Company won the right of reclaiming the Western foreshore from the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of Colaba. As population started growing in the early 19thcentury, every bit of the available area was built over and new areas were reclaimed from the sea.
Ques 25: Highlight any five reasons for the importance of tertiary sector in India.
Ans: Tertiary sector refers to those income generating activities in an economy that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. Tertiary sector is also called service sector because of the support it provides to other sectors of the economy.
Services in the tertiary sector include education, health services, transportation services, banking services and information technology services. Tertiary sector has witnessed immense growth in the last few decades in India.
The following points explain the rising importance of the tertiary sector :
Any country requires several services such as those of post and telegraph offices, police stations, hospitals, banks, insurance agencies, transport, defence, courts etc. Hence, the government has to take the responsibility of providing these services to its citizens.
Various services developed with the development of agriculture and industries. Some of them include transport, storage and trade. Demands for such services will only increase with the development of the primary and secondary sectors.
With a rise in people’s incomes, demands for services such as tourism, retail, schools, private hospitals etc. also increases. However, these demands are higher in big cities.
In the past few years, services based on communication technology and information have also increased. There has been a rapid rise in the production of these services.
Ques 26: (A) Two features ‘a’ and 'b’ are marked on the given political outline map of India (on page 11). Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them:
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
(b) The place from where Gandhiji organized Satyagraha in favour of Indigo planters.
(B) Locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols on the same given political outline map of India:
|(i) Tarapur||–||Nuclear Power Plant|
|(iii) Mohali||–||Software Technology Park|
|(iv) Kandla||–||Major Sea Port|
|(v) Durgapur||–||Iron and Steel Plant|