Botany book one study guide CLAT Notes | EduRev

CLAT : Botany book one study guide CLAT Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


BIOLOGY
BOTANY
HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
Untouchability is a sin
Untouchability is a crime
Untouchability is inhuman
TAMILNADU
TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
College Road, Chennai - 600 006.
REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE
TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
A Publication Under
Government of Tamilnadu
Distribution of Free Textbook Programme
(NOT FOR SALE)
Page 2


BIOLOGY
BOTANY
HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
Untouchability is a sin
Untouchability is a crime
Untouchability is inhuman
TAMILNADU
TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
College Road, Chennai - 600 006.
REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE
TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
A Publication Under
Government of Tamilnadu
Distribution of Free Textbook Programme
(NOT FOR SALE)
© Government of Tamilnadu
First Edition - 2005
Revised Edition - 2007
Chairperson
Dr. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Head of the Department of Botany (Rtd.)
Presidency College (Autonomous)
Chennai - 600 005.
Authors
Dr. MUJEERA FATHIMA
Senior Scale Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
Reviewers
T. R. A. DEVAKUMAR
Selection Grade Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
NALINI  P. RAJAGOVINDAN
Assistant Head Mistress
Corporation Boys'
Higher Secondary School
Saidapet, Chennai - 600 015.
Dr. V. MURGANANDAM
Reader in Botany
R.M. Vivekananda College,
Chennai - 600 004.
N. SHANTHA
P.G. Teacher
Government Higher Secondary School
Kodambakkam, Chennai - 600 024.
Price : Rs. 33-00
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education on behalf of the
Government of T amil Nadu.
This Book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper
Page 3


BIOLOGY
BOTANY
HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
Untouchability is a sin
Untouchability is a crime
Untouchability is inhuman
TAMILNADU
TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
College Road, Chennai - 600 006.
REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE
TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
A Publication Under
Government of Tamilnadu
Distribution of Free Textbook Programme
(NOT FOR SALE)
© Government of Tamilnadu
First Edition - 2005
Revised Edition - 2007
Chairperson
Dr. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Head of the Department of Botany (Rtd.)
Presidency College (Autonomous)
Chennai - 600 005.
Authors
Dr. MUJEERA FATHIMA
Senior Scale Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
Reviewers
T. R. A. DEVAKUMAR
Selection Grade Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
NALINI  P. RAJAGOVINDAN
Assistant Head Mistress
Corporation Boys'
Higher Secondary School
Saidapet, Chennai - 600 015.
Dr. V. MURGANANDAM
Reader in Botany
R.M. Vivekananda College,
Chennai - 600 004.
N. SHANTHA
P.G. Teacher
Government Higher Secondary School
Kodambakkam, Chennai - 600 024.
Price : Rs. 33-00
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education on behalf of the
Government of T amil Nadu.
This Book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper
PREF ACE
We are passing through an "Era of Biology". Words like "Biotechnology',
'Bioremediation", "Biochips", "Biomineralization", "Bioinformatics" etc. have become
familiar even with "common man". Certainly there is a new unusual never-before-
tried approach to address and solve many problems associated with modern life
and to enhance the quality and standard of living by application of modern tools of
Biology; particularly the Genetically Modified Foods (GM Foods) and other GM
Products have revolutionized our Life.
Application and exploitation of biological principles has become possible because
of extensive knowledge and study of descriptive and functional aspects of living
organisms over the years commonly studied under "Biology" which broadly
comprises Botany and Zoology. Infact, Botany/Zoology is the 'mother science' of
Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Cell Biology,
Biochemical Engineering and ultimately Biotechnology, These recent applied fields
are natrual outcome of a sound knowledge and study of basic Science, Botany
(and of course Zoology). Without the study of structural and functional aspects of
Green plants, Fungi, Bacteria, V iruses and their interrelationships, the"modern biology"
is not possible. In fact, applied sciences, however 'modern', cannot replace basic
sciences.
The notion of 'Boring Botany' with its tasks of memorising 'technical terms',
drawing diagrams can be dispensed with if only it is realized that application of the
discipline BOTANY has unlimited potentialities in our complicated modern life
through what is called Modern Biology.
In this Book, BIOLOGY (Botany), a sincere attempt is made by my colleagues,
on the basis of syllabus placed, to provide a simple and lucid account of Botany at
the XI Standard which hopefully could be further extended to XII Standard.
Each chapter is discussed with simplicity and clarity with Self-Evaluation at
the end of each lesson. While preparing for the examination, students should not
restrict themselves to the question/problems given in the Self-Evaluvation, they
must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from the entire text. Infact,
they are advised to refer to 'Reference Books' listed at the end to further their
knowledge.
DR. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Chairperson
Text-Book Writing Committee (XI-Bio-Botany)
iii
Page 4


BIOLOGY
BOTANY
HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
Untouchability is a sin
Untouchability is a crime
Untouchability is inhuman
TAMILNADU
TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
College Road, Chennai - 600 006.
REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE
TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
A Publication Under
Government of Tamilnadu
Distribution of Free Textbook Programme
(NOT FOR SALE)
© Government of Tamilnadu
First Edition - 2005
Revised Edition - 2007
Chairperson
Dr. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Head of the Department of Botany (Rtd.)
Presidency College (Autonomous)
Chennai - 600 005.
Authors
Dr. MUJEERA FATHIMA
Senior Scale Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
Reviewers
T. R. A. DEVAKUMAR
Selection Grade Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
NALINI  P. RAJAGOVINDAN
Assistant Head Mistress
Corporation Boys'
Higher Secondary School
Saidapet, Chennai - 600 015.
Dr. V. MURGANANDAM
Reader in Botany
R.M. Vivekananda College,
Chennai - 600 004.
N. SHANTHA
P.G. Teacher
Government Higher Secondary School
Kodambakkam, Chennai - 600 024.
Price : Rs. 33-00
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education on behalf of the
Government of T amil Nadu.
This Book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper
PREF ACE
We are passing through an "Era of Biology". Words like "Biotechnology',
'Bioremediation", "Biochips", "Biomineralization", "Bioinformatics" etc. have become
familiar even with "common man". Certainly there is a new unusual never-before-
tried approach to address and solve many problems associated with modern life
and to enhance the quality and standard of living by application of modern tools of
Biology; particularly the Genetically Modified Foods (GM Foods) and other GM
Products have revolutionized our Life.
Application and exploitation of biological principles has become possible because
of extensive knowledge and study of descriptive and functional aspects of living
organisms over the years commonly studied under "Biology" which broadly
comprises Botany and Zoology. Infact, Botany/Zoology is the 'mother science' of
Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Cell Biology,
Biochemical Engineering and ultimately Biotechnology, These recent applied fields
are natrual outcome of a sound knowledge and study of basic Science, Botany
(and of course Zoology). Without the study of structural and functional aspects of
Green plants, Fungi, Bacteria, V iruses and their interrelationships, the"modern biology"
is not possible. In fact, applied sciences, however 'modern', cannot replace basic
sciences.
The notion of 'Boring Botany' with its tasks of memorising 'technical terms',
drawing diagrams can be dispensed with if only it is realized that application of the
discipline BOTANY has unlimited potentialities in our complicated modern life
through what is called Modern Biology.
In this Book, BIOLOGY (Botany), a sincere attempt is made by my colleagues,
on the basis of syllabus placed, to provide a simple and lucid account of Botany at
the XI Standard which hopefully could be further extended to XII Standard.
Each chapter is discussed with simplicity and clarity with Self-Evaluation at
the end of each lesson. While preparing for the examination, students should not
restrict themselves to the question/problems given in the Self-Evaluvation, they
must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from the entire text. Infact,
they are advised to refer to 'Reference Books' listed at the end to further their
knowledge.
DR. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Chairperson
Text-Book Writing Committee (XI-Bio-Botany)
iii
SYLLABUS : HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
BIOLOGY : PART-A BOTANY
Unit 1 : Biodiversity (12 Hours)
Systematics : Two Kingdom and Five Kingdom systems - Salient features of
various Plant Groups : Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms
- Viruses - Bacteria.
Unit 2 : Cell Biology (8 Hours)
Cell as the basic unit of life - Cell Theory - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant
Cell) - Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM & SEM) - Ultra Structure
of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells - Cell Wall - Cell Membrane (Fluid Mosaic
Model) Membrane Transport Model - Cell organelles : Nucleus, Mitochondria,
Plastids, Ribosomes - Cell Divisions : Amitosis, Mitosis & Meiosis and their
significance.
Unit 3 : Plant Morphology (8 Hours)
Structure and Modification of Root, Stem and Leaf - Structure and Types of
Inflorescences - Structure and Types of Flowers, Fruits and Seeds.
Unit 4 : Genetics (12 Hours)
Concept of Heredity and Variation - Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance - Chromosomal
basis of Inheritance - Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance) - Epistasis.
Unit 5 : Plant Physiology (18 Hours)
Cell as a Physiological Unit : Properties of Protoplasm - Water relations -
Absorption and movement : Diffusion, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition -
Permeability, Water Potential - Theories of Water Transport : Root Pressure -
Transpiration pull - Factors affecting Rate of Transpiration - Mechanism of
Stomatal Opening and Closing (Potassium ion theory) - Factors affecting Stomatal
Movement - Mineral Nutrition : Functions of minerals - Essential Major elements
and Trace elements - Deficiency symptoms of elements - Theories of Translocation
- Translocation of Solutes - Nitrogen Metablosim and Biological Nitrogen Fixation.
iv
Page 5


BIOLOGY
BOTANY
HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
Untouchability is a sin
Untouchability is a crime
Untouchability is inhuman
TAMILNADU
TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
College Road, Chennai - 600 006.
REVISED BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE
TEXT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
A Publication Under
Government of Tamilnadu
Distribution of Free Textbook Programme
(NOT FOR SALE)
© Government of Tamilnadu
First Edition - 2005
Revised Edition - 2007
Chairperson
Dr. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Head of the Department of Botany (Rtd.)
Presidency College (Autonomous)
Chennai - 600 005.
Authors
Dr. MUJEERA FATHIMA
Senior Scale Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
Reviewers
T. R. A. DEVAKUMAR
Selection Grade Lecturer in Botany
Government Arts College (Men)
Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035.
NALINI  P. RAJAGOVINDAN
Assistant Head Mistress
Corporation Boys'
Higher Secondary School
Saidapet, Chennai - 600 015.
Dr. V. MURGANANDAM
Reader in Botany
R.M. Vivekananda College,
Chennai - 600 004.
N. SHANTHA
P.G. Teacher
Government Higher Secondary School
Kodambakkam, Chennai - 600 024.
Price : Rs. 33-00
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education on behalf of the
Government of T amil Nadu.
This Book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper
PREF ACE
We are passing through an "Era of Biology". Words like "Biotechnology',
'Bioremediation", "Biochips", "Biomineralization", "Bioinformatics" etc. have become
familiar even with "common man". Certainly there is a new unusual never-before-
tried approach to address and solve many problems associated with modern life
and to enhance the quality and standard of living by application of modern tools of
Biology; particularly the Genetically Modified Foods (GM Foods) and other GM
Products have revolutionized our Life.
Application and exploitation of biological principles has become possible because
of extensive knowledge and study of descriptive and functional aspects of living
organisms over the years commonly studied under "Biology" which broadly
comprises Botany and Zoology. Infact, Botany/Zoology is the 'mother science' of
Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Cell Biology,
Biochemical Engineering and ultimately Biotechnology, These recent applied fields
are natrual outcome of a sound knowledge and study of basic Science, Botany
(and of course Zoology). Without the study of structural and functional aspects of
Green plants, Fungi, Bacteria, V iruses and their interrelationships, the"modern biology"
is not possible. In fact, applied sciences, however 'modern', cannot replace basic
sciences.
The notion of 'Boring Botany' with its tasks of memorising 'technical terms',
drawing diagrams can be dispensed with if only it is realized that application of the
discipline BOTANY has unlimited potentialities in our complicated modern life
through what is called Modern Biology.
In this Book, BIOLOGY (Botany), a sincere attempt is made by my colleagues,
on the basis of syllabus placed, to provide a simple and lucid account of Botany at
the XI Standard which hopefully could be further extended to XII Standard.
Each chapter is discussed with simplicity and clarity with Self-Evaluation at
the end of each lesson. While preparing for the examination, students should not
restrict themselves to the question/problems given in the Self-Evaluvation, they
must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from the entire text. Infact,
they are advised to refer to 'Reference Books' listed at the end to further their
knowledge.
DR. A. JAFFAR HUSSAIN
Chairperson
Text-Book Writing Committee (XI-Bio-Botany)
iii
SYLLABUS : HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR
BIOLOGY : PART-A BOTANY
Unit 1 : Biodiversity (12 Hours)
Systematics : Two Kingdom and Five Kingdom systems - Salient features of
various Plant Groups : Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms
- Viruses - Bacteria.
Unit 2 : Cell Biology (8 Hours)
Cell as the basic unit of life - Cell Theory - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant
Cell) - Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM & SEM) - Ultra Structure
of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells - Cell Wall - Cell Membrane (Fluid Mosaic
Model) Membrane Transport Model - Cell organelles : Nucleus, Mitochondria,
Plastids, Ribosomes - Cell Divisions : Amitosis, Mitosis & Meiosis and their
significance.
Unit 3 : Plant Morphology (8 Hours)
Structure and Modification of Root, Stem and Leaf - Structure and Types of
Inflorescences - Structure and Types of Flowers, Fruits and Seeds.
Unit 4 : Genetics (12 Hours)
Concept of Heredity and Variation - Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance - Chromosomal
basis of Inheritance - Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance) - Epistasis.
Unit 5 : Plant Physiology (18 Hours)
Cell as a Physiological Unit : Properties of Protoplasm - Water relations -
Absorption and movement : Diffusion, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition -
Permeability, Water Potential - Theories of Water Transport : Root Pressure -
Transpiration pull - Factors affecting Rate of Transpiration - Mechanism of
Stomatal Opening and Closing (Potassium ion theory) - Factors affecting Stomatal
Movement - Mineral Nutrition : Functions of minerals - Essential Major elements
and Trace elements - Deficiency symptoms of elements - Theories of Translocation
- Translocation of Solutes - Nitrogen Metablosim and Biological Nitrogen Fixation.
iv
v
Unit 6 : Reproduction Biology (10 Hours)
Modes of Reproduction in Angiosperms : Vegetative propagation (natural and
artificial) - Micropropagation - Sexual Reproduction - Pollination: Types - Double
Fertilization - Germination of seed : Parts of seed - Types of germination -
Abscission, Senescence.
Unit 7 : Environmental Biology (10 Hours)
Organisms and their environment - Factors : Air, Water, Soil, Temperature, Light
and Biota - Hydrophytes, Mesophytes, Xerophytes and their adaptations - Natural
Resources - types, uses and misuse Conservation of water (RWH).
Read More
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