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Boundary Scan Methods & Standards - 2 Notes | Study Embedded Systems (Web) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Bypass and Identification Registers

Figure 41.8 shows a typical design for a Bypass register. It is a 1-bit register, selected by the Bypass instruction and provides a basic serial-shift function. There is no parallel output (which means that the Update_DR control has no effect on the register), but there is a defined effect with the Capture_DR control — the register captures a hard-wired value of logic 0.

Boundary Scan Methods & Standards - 2 Notes | Study Embedded Systems (Web) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Fig. 41.8 Bypass register

Instruction Register

As shown in Figure 41.9, an Instruction register has a shift scan section that can be connected between TDI and TDO, and a hold section that holds the current instruction. There may be some decoding logic beyond the hold section depending on the width of the register and the number of different instructions. The control signals to the Instruction register originate from the TAP controller and either cause a shift-in/shift-out through the Instruction register shift section, or cause the contents of the shift section to be passed across to the hold section (parallel Update operation). It is also possible to load (Capture) internal hard-wired values into the shift section of the Instruction register. The Instruction register must be at least two-bits long to allow coding of the four mandatory instructions — Extest, Bypass, Sample, Preload — but the maximum length of the Instruction register is not defined. In capture mode, the two least significant bits must capture a 01 pattern. (Note: by convention, the least-significant bit of any register connected between the device TDI and TDO pins, is always the bit closest to TDO.) The values captured into higher-order bits of the Instruction register are not defined in the Standard. One possible use of these higher-order bits is to capture an informal identification code if the optional 32-bit Identification register is not implemented. In practice, the only mandated bits for the Instruction register capture is the 01 pattern in the two least-significant bits. We will return to the value of capturing this pattern later in the tutorial.

Instruction Register

Boundary Scan Methods & Standards - 2 Notes | Study Embedded Systems (Web) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Fig. 41.9 Instruction register

Instruction Set

The IEEE 1149.1 Standard describes four mandatory instructions: Extest, Bypass, Sample, and Preload, and six optional instructions: Intest, Idcode, Usercode, Runbist, Clamp and HighZ. Whenever a register is selected to become active between TDI and TDO, it is always possible to perform three operations on the register: parallel Capture followed by serial Shift followed by parallel Update. The order of these operations is fixed by the state-sequencing design of the TAP controller. For some target Data registers, some of these operations will be effectively null operations, no ops.

Standard Instructions

InstructionSelected Data Register

Mandatory:

Extest

Bypass

Sample

Preload

Optional:

Intest

Idcode

Usercode

Runbist

Clamp

HighZ

 

Boundary scan (formerly all-0s code)

Bypass (initialized state, all-1s code)

Boundary scan (device in functional mode)

Boundary scan (device in function mode)

 

Boundary scan

identification (initialized state if present)

Identification (for PLDs)

Result register

Bypass (output pins in safe state)

Bypass (output pins in high-Z state)

NB. All unused instruction codes must default to Bypass

EXTEST: This instruction is used to test interconnect between two chips. The code for Extest used to be defined to be the all-0s code. The EXTEST instruction places an IEEE 1149.1 compliant device into an external boundary test mode and selects the boundary scan register to be connected between TDI and TDO. During this instruction, the boundary scan cells associated with outputs are preloaded with test patterns to test downstream devices. The input boundary cells are set up to capture the input data for later analysis.

BYPASS: A device's boundary scan chain can be skipped using the BYPASS instruction, allowing the data to pass through the bypass register. The Bypass instruction must be assigned an all-1s code and when executed, causes the Bypass register to be placed between the TDI and TDO pins. This allows efficient testing of a selected device without incurring the overhead of traversing through other devices. The BYPASS instruction allows an IEEE 1149.1 compliant device to remain in a functional mode and selects the bypass register to be connected between the TDI and TDO pins. The BYPASS instruction allows serial data to be transferred through a device from the TDI pin to the TDO pin without affecting the operation of the device.

SAMPLE/PRELOAD: The Sample and Preload instructions, and their predecessor the Sample/Preload instruction, selects the Boundary-Scan register when executed. The instruction sets up the boundary-scan cells either to sample (capture) values or to preload known values into the boundary-scan cells prior to some follow-on operation. During this instruction, the boundary scan register can be accessed via a data scan operation, to take a sample of the functional data entering and leaving the device. This instruction is also used to preload test data into the boundary-scan register prior to loading an EXTEST instruction.

INTEST: With this command the boundary scan register (BSR) is connected between the TDI and the TDO signals. The chip's internal core-logic signals are sampled and captured by the BSR cells at the entry to the "Capture_DR" state as shown in TAP state transition diagram. The contents of the BSR register are shifted out via the TDO line at exits from the "Shift_DR" state. As the contents of the BSR (the captured data) are shifted out, new data are sifted in at the entries to the "Shift_DR" state. The new contents of the BSR are applied to the chip's core-logic signals during the "Update_DR" state.

IDCODE: This is used to select the Identification register between TDI and TDO, preparatory to loading the internally-held 32-bit identification code and reading it out through TDO. The 32 bits are used to identify the manufacturer of the device, its part number and its version number.

USERCODE: This instruction selects the same 32-bit register as IDCODE, but allows an alternative 32 bits of identity data to be loaded and serially shifted out. This instruction is used for dual-personality devices, such as Complex Programmable Logic Devices and Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

RUNBIST: An important optional instruction is RunBist. Because of the growing importance of internal self-test structures, the behavior of RunBist is defined in the Standard. The self-test routine must be self-initializing (i.e., no external seed values are allowed), and the execution of RunBist essentially targets a self-test result register between TDI and TDO. At the end of the self-test cycle, the targeted data register holds the Pass/Fail result. With this instruction one can control the execution of the memory BIST by the TAP controller, and hence reducing the hardware overhead for the BIST controller.

CLAMP: Clamp is an instruction that uses boundary-scan cells to drive preset values established initially with the Preload instruction onto the outputs of devices, and then selects the Bypass register between TDI and TDO (unlike the Preload instruction which leaves the device with the boundary-scan register still selected until a new instruction is executed or the device is returned to the Test_Logic Reset state). Clamp would be used to set up safe guarding values on the outputs of certain devices in order to avoid bus contention problems, for example.

HIGH-Z: It is similar to Clamp instruction, but it leaves the device output pins in a highimpedance state rather than drive fixed logic-1 or logic-0 values. HighZ also selects the Bypass register between TDI and TDO.

On Board Test Controller

So far the test architecture of boundary scan inside the chip under test has been discussed. A major problem remains is "Who is going to control the whole boundary scan test procedure?" In general there are two solutions for this problem: using an external tester and using a special onboard controller. The former is usually expensive because of the involving of an IC tester. The latter provides an economic way to complete the whole test procedure. As clear from the above description, in addition to the test data, the most important signal that a test controller has to provide is the TMS signal. There exist two methods to provide this signal in a board: the star configuration and the ring configuration as shown in Figure 41.10. In the star configuration the TMS is broadcast to all chips. Hence all chips must execute the same operation at any time. For the ring structure, the test controller provides one independent TMS signal for each chip, therefore great flexibility of the test procedure is facilitated.

Boundary Scan Methods & Standards - 2 Notes | Study Embedded Systems (Web) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)Boundary Scan Methods & Standards - 2 Notes | Study Embedded Systems (Web) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Fig. 41.10 BUS master for chips with BS: (a) star structure, (b) ring structure

How Boundary Scan Testing Is Done

In a board design there usually can be many JTAG compliant devices. All these devices can be connected together to form a single scan chain as illustrated in Figure 41.11, "Single Boundary Scan Chain on a Board." Alternatively, multiple scan chains can be established so parallel checking of devices can be performed simultaneously. Figure 41.11, "Single Boundary Scan Chain on a Board," illustrates the on onboard TAP controllers connected to an offboard TAP control device, such as a personal computer, through a TAP access connector. The offboard TAP control device can perform different tests during board manufacturing without the need of bed-of-nail equipment.

Boundary Scan Methods & Standards - 2 Notes | Study Embedded Systems (Web) - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Fig. 41.11 Single Boundary Scan Chain on a Board

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