CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS Notes | EduRev

Created by: Gaurav Mendiratta

: CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1 
X 
Chemistry 
Chapter 4  
Carbon and its compounds 
Top concepts: 
1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of
electrons between atoms. In a covalent bond, the shared pair of 
electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms. 
2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond:
a. The combining atoms should have 4 to 7 electrons in their
valence shell. 
b. The combining atoms should not lose electrons easily.
c. The combining atoms should gain electrons readily.
d. The difference in electronegativities of two bonded atoms should
be low. 
3. Properties of covalent compounds:
a. Physical states: They are generally liquids or gases. Some
covalent compounds may exist as solids. 
b. Solubility:  They are generally insoluble in water and other polar
solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzene, toluene 
etc. 
c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and
boiling points. 
d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current.
4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compounds:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. Share the electrons between atoms in such a way that all the
atoms in a molecule have noble gas configuration. 
d. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
5. Electronic configuration of some non- metals:
Name of 
element 
Sy
mb
ol 
Ato
mic 
No. 
Elec
tron
s 
Distribution 
of electrons 
Valen
cy 
Type of 
element 
Hydrogen H 1 1 1 1 Non – metal 
Carbon C 6 6 2, 4 4 Non – metal 
Nitrogen N 7 7 2, 5 3 Non – metal 
Oxygen O 8 8 2, 6 2 Non – metal 
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Page 2


1 
X 
Chemistry 
Chapter 4  
Carbon and its compounds 
Top concepts: 
1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of
electrons between atoms. In a covalent bond, the shared pair of 
electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms. 
2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond:
a. The combining atoms should have 4 to 7 electrons in their
valence shell. 
b. The combining atoms should not lose electrons easily.
c. The combining atoms should gain electrons readily.
d. The difference in electronegativities of two bonded atoms should
be low. 
3. Properties of covalent compounds:
a. Physical states: They are generally liquids or gases. Some
covalent compounds may exist as solids. 
b. Solubility:  They are generally insoluble in water and other polar
solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzene, toluene 
etc. 
c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and
boiling points. 
d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current.
4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compounds:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. Share the electrons between atoms in such a way that all the
atoms in a molecule have noble gas configuration. 
d. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
5. Electronic configuration of some non- metals:
Name of 
element 
Sy
mb
ol 
Ato
mic 
No. 
Elec
tron
s 
Distribution 
of electrons 
Valen
cy 
Type of 
element 
Hydrogen H 1 1 1 1 Non – metal 
Carbon C 6 6 2, 4 4 Non – metal 
Nitrogen N 7 7 2, 5 3 Non – metal 
Oxygen O 8 8 2, 6 2 Non – metal 
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2 
Fluorine F 9 9 2, 7 1 Non – metal 
Phosphorus P 15 15 2, 8, 5 3 Non – metal 
Sulphur S 16 16 2, 8, 6 2 Non – metal 
Chlorine Cl 17 17 2, 8, 7 1 Non – metal 
Argon Ar 18 18 2, 8, 8 0 Noble gas 
6. Carbon forms covalent bonds. 
7. Electronegativity – It is the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair
of electrons towards itself. 
8. If the atoms forming a covalent bond have different 
electronegativities, the atom with higher electronegativity pulls the 
shared pair of electron towards itself. Thus, the atom with the higher 
electronegativity develops a partial negative charge and the atom with 
the lower electronegativity develops a partial positive charge. This 
covalent bond with some polarity is called polar covalent bond. 
9. Carbon forms a large number of compounds because of two unique
properties: 
a. Tetravalency
b. Catenation
10.Tetravalency of carbon:
    Atomic number = 6 
    Electronic configuration: 2, 4 
    Valence electrons = 4 
    Valency = 4 
 So, carbon needs four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. 
 Or in other words, carbon has the ability to form four bonds with  
 carbon or atoms of other mono-valent elements. 
11.Catenation: Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other
atoms of carbon, giving rise to large molecules. This property is called 
catenation. 
12.Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of Hydrocarbons:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. First complete the noble gas configuration of all the hydrogen
atoms by bonding each hydrogen atom with a carbon atom by a 
single bond. 
d. The remaining valency of each carbon is completed by forming
carbon – carbon single, double or triple bonds. 
e. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
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Page 3


1 
X 
Chemistry 
Chapter 4  
Carbon and its compounds 
Top concepts: 
1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of
electrons between atoms. In a covalent bond, the shared pair of 
electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms. 
2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond:
a. The combining atoms should have 4 to 7 electrons in their
valence shell. 
b. The combining atoms should not lose electrons easily.
c. The combining atoms should gain electrons readily.
d. The difference in electronegativities of two bonded atoms should
be low. 
3. Properties of covalent compounds:
a. Physical states: They are generally liquids or gases. Some
covalent compounds may exist as solids. 
b. Solubility:  They are generally insoluble in water and other polar
solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzene, toluene 
etc. 
c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and
boiling points. 
d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current.
4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compounds:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. Share the electrons between atoms in such a way that all the
atoms in a molecule have noble gas configuration. 
d. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
5. Electronic configuration of some non- metals:
Name of 
element 
Sy
mb
ol 
Ato
mic 
No. 
Elec
tron
s 
Distribution 
of electrons 
Valen
cy 
Type of 
element 
Hydrogen H 1 1 1 1 Non – metal 
Carbon C 6 6 2, 4 4 Non – metal 
Nitrogen N 7 7 2, 5 3 Non – metal 
Oxygen O 8 8 2, 6 2 Non – metal 
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2 
Fluorine F 9 9 2, 7 1 Non – metal 
Phosphorus P 15 15 2, 8, 5 3 Non – metal 
Sulphur S 16 16 2, 8, 6 2 Non – metal 
Chlorine Cl 17 17 2, 8, 7 1 Non – metal 
Argon Ar 18 18 2, 8, 8 0 Noble gas 
6. Carbon forms covalent bonds. 
7. Electronegativity – It is the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair
of electrons towards itself. 
8. If the atoms forming a covalent bond have different 
electronegativities, the atom with higher electronegativity pulls the 
shared pair of electron towards itself. Thus, the atom with the higher 
electronegativity develops a partial negative charge and the atom with 
the lower electronegativity develops a partial positive charge. This 
covalent bond with some polarity is called polar covalent bond. 
9. Carbon forms a large number of compounds because of two unique
properties: 
a. Tetravalency
b. Catenation
10.Tetravalency of carbon:
    Atomic number = 6 
    Electronic configuration: 2, 4 
    Valence electrons = 4 
    Valency = 4 
 So, carbon needs four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. 
 Or in other words, carbon has the ability to form four bonds with  
 carbon or atoms of other mono-valent elements. 
11.Catenation: Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other
atoms of carbon, giving rise to large molecules. This property is called 
catenation. 
12.Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of Hydrocarbons:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. First complete the noble gas configuration of all the hydrogen
atoms by bonding each hydrogen atom with a carbon atom by a 
single bond. 
d. The remaining valency of each carbon is completed by forming
carbon – carbon single, double or triple bonds. 
e. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
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3 
13.Classification of hydrocarbons:
a. Aliphatic or open chain hydrocarbons: These are the carbon
compounds which have carbon carbon long open chains. They 
are classified as: 
i. Saturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have all
carbon – carbon single bonds. 
ii. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have at
least one carbon – carbon double or triple bonds. 
• Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon
double bond are called alkenes.  
General formula = C
n
H
2n 
where
 
n = number of 
carbon atoms 
•  Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon
triple bond are called alkynes. 
General formula = C
n
H
2n-2 
where
 
n = number of 
carbon atoms 
b. Cyclic or closed chain hydrocarbons: These are the
 hydrocarbons which have carbon carbon closed chain. 
 They are classified as: 
i. Alicyclic hydrocarbons: These are the hydrocarbons which
do not have benzene ring in their structure. 
ii. Aromatic hydrocarbons: These are the hydrocarbons which
have benzene ring in their structure. When hydrogen bonded to 
carbon of benzene is substituted with halogens, radicals or 
other functional groups, the derivatives are called aromatic 
compounds. 
14.Benzene: It is an aromatic hydrocarbon which has the molecular
formula C
6
H
6
. It has alternating carbon - carbon single and double 
bonds. 
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Page 4


1 
X 
Chemistry 
Chapter 4  
Carbon and its compounds 
Top concepts: 
1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of
electrons between atoms. In a covalent bond, the shared pair of 
electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms. 
2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond:
a. The combining atoms should have 4 to 7 electrons in their
valence shell. 
b. The combining atoms should not lose electrons easily.
c. The combining atoms should gain electrons readily.
d. The difference in electronegativities of two bonded atoms should
be low. 
3. Properties of covalent compounds:
a. Physical states: They are generally liquids or gases. Some
covalent compounds may exist as solids. 
b. Solubility:  They are generally insoluble in water and other polar
solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzene, toluene 
etc. 
c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and
boiling points. 
d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current.
4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compounds:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. Share the electrons between atoms in such a way that all the
atoms in a molecule have noble gas configuration. 
d. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
5. Electronic configuration of some non- metals:
Name of 
element 
Sy
mb
ol 
Ato
mic 
No. 
Elec
tron
s 
Distribution 
of electrons 
Valen
cy 
Type of 
element 
Hydrogen H 1 1 1 1 Non – metal 
Carbon C 6 6 2, 4 4 Non – metal 
Nitrogen N 7 7 2, 5 3 Non – metal 
Oxygen O 8 8 2, 6 2 Non – metal 
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2 
Fluorine F 9 9 2, 7 1 Non – metal 
Phosphorus P 15 15 2, 8, 5 3 Non – metal 
Sulphur S 16 16 2, 8, 6 2 Non – metal 
Chlorine Cl 17 17 2, 8, 7 1 Non – metal 
Argon Ar 18 18 2, 8, 8 0 Noble gas 
6. Carbon forms covalent bonds. 
7. Electronegativity – It is the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair
of electrons towards itself. 
8. If the atoms forming a covalent bond have different 
electronegativities, the atom with higher electronegativity pulls the 
shared pair of electron towards itself. Thus, the atom with the higher 
electronegativity develops a partial negative charge and the atom with 
the lower electronegativity develops a partial positive charge. This 
covalent bond with some polarity is called polar covalent bond. 
9. Carbon forms a large number of compounds because of two unique
properties: 
a. Tetravalency
b. Catenation
10.Tetravalency of carbon:
    Atomic number = 6 
    Electronic configuration: 2, 4 
    Valence electrons = 4 
    Valency = 4 
 So, carbon needs four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. 
 Or in other words, carbon has the ability to form four bonds with  
 carbon or atoms of other mono-valent elements. 
11.Catenation: Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other
atoms of carbon, giving rise to large molecules. This property is called 
catenation. 
12.Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of Hydrocarbons:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. First complete the noble gas configuration of all the hydrogen
atoms by bonding each hydrogen atom with a carbon atom by a 
single bond. 
d. The remaining valency of each carbon is completed by forming
carbon – carbon single, double or triple bonds. 
e. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
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3 
13.Classification of hydrocarbons:
a. Aliphatic or open chain hydrocarbons: These are the carbon
compounds which have carbon carbon long open chains. They 
are classified as: 
i. Saturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have all
carbon – carbon single bonds. 
ii. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have at
least one carbon – carbon double or triple bonds. 
• Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon
double bond are called alkenes.  
General formula = C
n
H
2n 
where
 
n = number of 
carbon atoms 
•  Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon
triple bond are called alkynes. 
General formula = C
n
H
2n-2 
where
 
n = number of 
carbon atoms 
b. Cyclic or closed chain hydrocarbons: These are the
 hydrocarbons which have carbon carbon closed chain. 
 They are classified as: 
i. Alicyclic hydrocarbons: These are the hydrocarbons which
do not have benzene ring in their structure. 
ii. Aromatic hydrocarbons: These are the hydrocarbons which
have benzene ring in their structure. When hydrogen bonded to 
carbon of benzene is substituted with halogens, radicals or 
other functional groups, the derivatives are called aromatic 
compounds. 
14.Benzene: It is an aromatic hydrocarbon which has the molecular
formula C
6
H
6
. It has alternating carbon - carbon single and double 
bonds. 
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4 
 Benzene can also be represented as: 
15.IUPAC name of hydrocarbon consists of two parts:
a. Word root: Number of carbons in the longest carbon chain
Number of carbon 
atoms 
Word root  
(Greek name) 
1 Meth 
2 Eth 
3 Prop 
4 But 
5 Pent 
6 Hex 
7 Hept 
8 Oct 
9 Non 
10 Dec 
b. Suffix: Depends on the type of carbon – carbon bond: for single
bond, suffix is –ane ; for double bond, suffix is –ene, and for 
triple bond suffix is –yne 
16.Steps to write the IUPAC nomenclature of hydrocarbons: 
a. Select the parent carbon chain:
i. Select the longest carbon chain as the parent chain.
ii. If a double or a triple bond is present in the carbon chain,
it should be included in the parent chain. 
b. Number the parent carbon chain from that carbon end such that
the double bond, triple bond or side chain gets the lowest 
number. 
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Page 5


1 
X 
Chemistry 
Chapter 4  
Carbon and its compounds 
Top concepts: 
1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of
electrons between atoms. In a covalent bond, the shared pair of 
electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms. 
2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond:
a. The combining atoms should have 4 to 7 electrons in their
valence shell. 
b. The combining atoms should not lose electrons easily.
c. The combining atoms should gain electrons readily.
d. The difference in electronegativities of two bonded atoms should
be low. 
3. Properties of covalent compounds:
a. Physical states: They are generally liquids or gases. Some
covalent compounds may exist as solids. 
b. Solubility:  They are generally insoluble in water and other polar
solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzene, toluene 
etc. 
c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and
boiling points. 
d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current.
4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compounds:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. Share the electrons between atoms in such a way that all the
atoms in a molecule have noble gas configuration. 
d. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
5. Electronic configuration of some non- metals:
Name of 
element 
Sy
mb
ol 
Ato
mic 
No. 
Elec
tron
s 
Distribution 
of electrons 
Valen
cy 
Type of 
element 
Hydrogen H 1 1 1 1 Non – metal 
Carbon C 6 6 2, 4 4 Non – metal 
Nitrogen N 7 7 2, 5 3 Non – metal 
Oxygen O 8 8 2, 6 2 Non – metal 
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2 
Fluorine F 9 9 2, 7 1 Non – metal 
Phosphorus P 15 15 2, 8, 5 3 Non – metal 
Sulphur S 16 16 2, 8, 6 2 Non – metal 
Chlorine Cl 17 17 2, 8, 7 1 Non – metal 
Argon Ar 18 18 2, 8, 8 0 Noble gas 
6. Carbon forms covalent bonds. 
7. Electronegativity – It is the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair
of electrons towards itself. 
8. If the atoms forming a covalent bond have different 
electronegativities, the atom with higher electronegativity pulls the 
shared pair of electron towards itself. Thus, the atom with the higher 
electronegativity develops a partial negative charge and the atom with 
the lower electronegativity develops a partial positive charge. This 
covalent bond with some polarity is called polar covalent bond. 
9. Carbon forms a large number of compounds because of two unique
properties: 
a. Tetravalency
b. Catenation
10.Tetravalency of carbon:
    Atomic number = 6 
    Electronic configuration: 2, 4 
    Valence electrons = 4 
    Valency = 4 
 So, carbon needs four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. 
 Or in other words, carbon has the ability to form four bonds with  
 carbon or atoms of other mono-valent elements. 
11.Catenation: Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other
atoms of carbon, giving rise to large molecules. This property is called 
catenation. 
12.Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of Hydrocarbons:
a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the
molecule. 
b. Identify how many electrons are needed by each atom to attain
noble gas configuration. 
c. First complete the noble gas configuration of all the hydrogen
atoms by bonding each hydrogen atom with a carbon atom by a 
single bond. 
d. The remaining valency of each carbon is completed by forming
carbon – carbon single, double or triple bonds. 
e. Keep in mind that the shared electrons are counted in the
valence shell of both the atoms sharing it. 
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3 
13.Classification of hydrocarbons:
a. Aliphatic or open chain hydrocarbons: These are the carbon
compounds which have carbon carbon long open chains. They 
are classified as: 
i. Saturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have all
carbon – carbon single bonds. 
ii. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: These hydrocarbons have at
least one carbon – carbon double or triple bonds. 
• Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon
double bond are called alkenes.  
General formula = C
n
H
2n 
where
 
n = number of 
carbon atoms 
•  Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon
triple bond are called alkynes. 
General formula = C
n
H
2n-2 
where
 
n = number of 
carbon atoms 
b. Cyclic or closed chain hydrocarbons: These are the
 hydrocarbons which have carbon carbon closed chain. 
 They are classified as: 
i. Alicyclic hydrocarbons: These are the hydrocarbons which
do not have benzene ring in their structure. 
ii. Aromatic hydrocarbons: These are the hydrocarbons which
have benzene ring in their structure. When hydrogen bonded to 
carbon of benzene is substituted with halogens, radicals or 
other functional groups, the derivatives are called aromatic 
compounds. 
14.Benzene: It is an aromatic hydrocarbon which has the molecular
formula C
6
H
6
. It has alternating carbon - carbon single and double 
bonds. 
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4 
 Benzene can also be represented as: 
15.IUPAC name of hydrocarbon consists of two parts:
a. Word root: Number of carbons in the longest carbon chain
Number of carbon 
atoms 
Word root  
(Greek name) 
1 Meth 
2 Eth 
3 Prop 
4 But 
5 Pent 
6 Hex 
7 Hept 
8 Oct 
9 Non 
10 Dec 
b. Suffix: Depends on the type of carbon – carbon bond: for single
bond, suffix is –ane ; for double bond, suffix is –ene, and for 
triple bond suffix is –yne 
16.Steps to write the IUPAC nomenclature of hydrocarbons: 
a. Select the parent carbon chain:
i. Select the longest carbon chain as the parent chain.
ii. If a double or a triple bond is present in the carbon chain,
it should be included in the parent chain. 
b. Number the parent carbon chain from that carbon end such that
the double bond, triple bond or side chain gets the lowest 
number. 
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5 
c. Identify and name the side chain if any: -CH
3
 is named as
methyl, -C
2
H
5
 is named as ethyl etc. Also identify the position of 
the side chain. 
d. Write the name of the hydrocarbon as:
  Position number-name of the side chain word root – Position 
 number- suffix 
 Example: 2-Methyl but-1-ene 
e. Remember if the hydrocarbon is an alkane, the position number
of suffix is not written. 
17.Types of formula for writing hydrocarbons:
a. Molecular formula: The actual number of each type of atom
present in the compound. 
b. Structural formula: The actual arrangement of atoms is written
c. Condensed formula: It is the shortened form of the structural
formula 
18.Conditions for Isomerism: 
a. Only alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can have
isomers. 
b. The side chains cannot be present on the terminal carbons.
19. How to write different chain isomers of hydrocarbons:
a. First draw the different carbon chains keeping in mind the
conditions for isomerism. 
b. Complete the tetravalency of carbon by forming single covalent
bonds with hydrogens. 
c. In the end, check that the molecular formula of each isomer
should be same. 
20. How to write different position isomers of unsaturated hydrocarbons:
a. First draw the different carbon chains keeping in mind the
conditions for isomerism. 
b. If it is an alkene draw the first isomer always by drawing a
double bond between C
1
 and C
2
 or if it is an alkyne draw the 
first isomer always by drawing a triple bond between C
1
 and C
2
 
c. The next isomers will be dawn by drawing the same chain and
changing the positions of the double and triple bonds in alkenes 
and alkynes respectively.  
d. Complete the tetravalency of carbon by forming single covalent
bonds with hydrogens. 
e. In the end, check that the molecular formula of each isomer
should be same. 
21.Homologous Series: A series of organic compounds in which every
succeeding member differs from the previous one by –CH
2
 or 14 u. 
The molecular formula of all the members of a homologous series can 
be derived from a general formula. 
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