CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Business Studies(BST) (2019-20) Commerce Notes | EduRev

Business Studies (BST) Class 12

Created by: Nipuns Institute

Commerce : CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Business Studies(BST) (2019-20) Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Business Studies Class 12 (2019-20) 
Marking Scheme 
 
1. c). both science and art. 
2.  Coordination. 
3. a). Applicable only in large firms. 
4. a). The extent and nature of government intervention in business 
5.  b). Selecting an alternative 
6. b). Span of management. 
7. a). Direct recruitment 
8. a). Employer paid Insurance 
9. b). Personal barrier 
10. B) Leadership 
11. A) Revise the schedule 
12.c) Investment decision 
13 a). Trading on equity. 
14 d) Financing decision 
15 a). Protective function 
16 C). Production  
17 c) Product  
18 c) labelling 
19 False 
20. d) None of the above. 
21. Following are the tasks that Mr. Armstrong needs to perform as a production manager in his firm to 
carry out the plans laid down by the Top managers: (Any three) 
i. Interpret the policies framed by top management. 
ii. Ensure that the production department has the necessary personnel. 
iii. Assign necessary duties and responsibilities to them. 
iv. Motivate them to achieve the desired objectives. 
v. Cooperate with other departments for the smooth functioning of the organization. 
OR 
Following are the economic objectives of management 
1) Survival 
2) Profit 
3) Growth.         (3marks) 
22 Three elements of delegation are- 
1. Authority- Right of an individual to command his subordinates & to take action within the scope 
of his position. It is right to take decisions inherent in a job position. 
2.  Responsibility- it is the obligation of subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty. It arises 
from superior subordinate relationship. It flows upwards. 
3. Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome, i.e. subordinate will be 
answerable to superior for satisfactory performance of work. 
(1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x3 =3) 
23. Controlling. (1 mark)  
It is considered an indispensable function of management because of the following reasons (Any 
two):  
i. Accomplishing organizational goals. 
Page 2


Business Studies Class 12 (2019-20) 
Marking Scheme 
 
1. c). both science and art. 
2.  Coordination. 
3. a). Applicable only in large firms. 
4. a). The extent and nature of government intervention in business 
5.  b). Selecting an alternative 
6. b). Span of management. 
7. a). Direct recruitment 
8. a). Employer paid Insurance 
9. b). Personal barrier 
10. B) Leadership 
11. A) Revise the schedule 
12.c) Investment decision 
13 a). Trading on equity. 
14 d) Financing decision 
15 a). Protective function 
16 C). Production  
17 c) Product  
18 c) labelling 
19 False 
20. d) None of the above. 
21. Following are the tasks that Mr. Armstrong needs to perform as a production manager in his firm to 
carry out the plans laid down by the Top managers: (Any three) 
i. Interpret the policies framed by top management. 
ii. Ensure that the production department has the necessary personnel. 
iii. Assign necessary duties and responsibilities to them. 
iv. Motivate them to achieve the desired objectives. 
v. Cooperate with other departments for the smooth functioning of the organization. 
OR 
Following are the economic objectives of management 
1) Survival 
2) Profit 
3) Growth.         (3marks) 
22 Three elements of delegation are- 
1. Authority- Right of an individual to command his subordinates & to take action within the scope 
of his position. It is right to take decisions inherent in a job position. 
2.  Responsibility- it is the obligation of subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty. It arises 
from superior subordinate relationship. It flows upwards. 
3. Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome, i.e. subordinate will be 
answerable to superior for satisfactory performance of work. 
(1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x3 =3) 
23. Controlling. (1 mark)  
It is considered an indispensable function of management because of the following reasons (Any 
two):  
i. Accomplishing organizational goals. 
ii. Judging accuracy of standards. 
iii. Making efficient use of resources. 
iv. Improving employee motivation. 
v. Ensuring order and discipline. 
vi. Facilitating coordination in action.   (1x2=2) 
24 a) Public relations- It involves variety of activities designed to promote or protect company’s 
image & its individual products in the eyes of public. (1/2 mark for identification and ½ mark for 
explanation) (1 mark) 
b) Any two of the following are the promotional tools which may also be used: 
 i) Advertising 
ii) Personal Selling 
iii) Sales promotion (1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x2 = 2)   
 25.  a. Right to be heard 
b. Right to seek redressal 
c. Right to consumer education                                                                   (1x3=3) 
 
26. Following are the points of importance of understanding Business Environment discussed: (Any two) 
1. “Improve existing card facility--------“- It helps the firm in identifying threat and early warning signal.” 
2. “Exploit opportunity arising-------“ – It helps to identify opportunities and get first mover advantage. 
3. “Improve their performance---“- It helps in improving performance. 
4. “Planned to hire more-----guidelines to train sales force” –It helps in assisting in planning and policy 
formulation. 
(1/2 mark for quoting, ½ mark for identification, 1 mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
 
27. a).  Importance of Decentralisation are- (Any two) 
1. Develops initiative among subordinate- It helps to promote- self-reliance & confidence among 
subordinates. 
2. Develops managerial talent for the future- Decentralisation gives subordinates a chance to 
prove their abilities & creates a reservoir of qualified workforce. 
3. Quick decision making- Since decisions are taken at the points of action. Therefore, no approval 
of superiors & leads to quick decision making. 
4. Relief to top management- Decentralisation diminishes the amount of direct supervision 
exercised by superior over his subordinates because they are given freedom to act within the 
limits set by top management & top management can concentrate on important policies.  
 
(1/2 mark for identification and 1 ½ mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
b). Divisional structure- In a divisional structure, the organisation structure comprises of 
separate business units or divisions. Each division is self-contained as it develops expertise in all 
functions related to a product line 
(1/2 mark for naming and ½ mark for explanation) 
28- Factors affecting price determination-(any four) 
1. Product cost- One of the most important factors affecting the price is its cost. It includes cost of 
producing, distributing & selling the product. 
2. Utility& Demand- The product cost set the lower limit of price, the utility provided by the 
product &intensity of demand of product sets the highest price of the product. 
3. Extent of competition in the market- when firm does not face any competition it has complete 
freedom in fixing up the price. But when competition is more the price of the product is fixed 
keeping in mind the competitor’s price. 
Page 3


Business Studies Class 12 (2019-20) 
Marking Scheme 
 
1. c). both science and art. 
2.  Coordination. 
3. a). Applicable only in large firms. 
4. a). The extent and nature of government intervention in business 
5.  b). Selecting an alternative 
6. b). Span of management. 
7. a). Direct recruitment 
8. a). Employer paid Insurance 
9. b). Personal barrier 
10. B) Leadership 
11. A) Revise the schedule 
12.c) Investment decision 
13 a). Trading on equity. 
14 d) Financing decision 
15 a). Protective function 
16 C). Production  
17 c) Product  
18 c) labelling 
19 False 
20. d) None of the above. 
21. Following are the tasks that Mr. Armstrong needs to perform as a production manager in his firm to 
carry out the plans laid down by the Top managers: (Any three) 
i. Interpret the policies framed by top management. 
ii. Ensure that the production department has the necessary personnel. 
iii. Assign necessary duties and responsibilities to them. 
iv. Motivate them to achieve the desired objectives. 
v. Cooperate with other departments for the smooth functioning of the organization. 
OR 
Following are the economic objectives of management 
1) Survival 
2) Profit 
3) Growth.         (3marks) 
22 Three elements of delegation are- 
1. Authority- Right of an individual to command his subordinates & to take action within the scope 
of his position. It is right to take decisions inherent in a job position. 
2.  Responsibility- it is the obligation of subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty. It arises 
from superior subordinate relationship. It flows upwards. 
3. Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome, i.e. subordinate will be 
answerable to superior for satisfactory performance of work. 
(1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x3 =3) 
23. Controlling. (1 mark)  
It is considered an indispensable function of management because of the following reasons (Any 
two):  
i. Accomplishing organizational goals. 
ii. Judging accuracy of standards. 
iii. Making efficient use of resources. 
iv. Improving employee motivation. 
v. Ensuring order and discipline. 
vi. Facilitating coordination in action.   (1x2=2) 
24 a) Public relations- It involves variety of activities designed to promote or protect company’s 
image & its individual products in the eyes of public. (1/2 mark for identification and ½ mark for 
explanation) (1 mark) 
b) Any two of the following are the promotional tools which may also be used: 
 i) Advertising 
ii) Personal Selling 
iii) Sales promotion (1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x2 = 2)   
 25.  a. Right to be heard 
b. Right to seek redressal 
c. Right to consumer education                                                                   (1x3=3) 
 
26. Following are the points of importance of understanding Business Environment discussed: (Any two) 
1. “Improve existing card facility--------“- It helps the firm in identifying threat and early warning signal.” 
2. “Exploit opportunity arising-------“ – It helps to identify opportunities and get first mover advantage. 
3. “Improve their performance---“- It helps in improving performance. 
4. “Planned to hire more-----guidelines to train sales force” –It helps in assisting in planning and policy 
formulation. 
(1/2 mark for quoting, ½ mark for identification, 1 mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
 
27. a).  Importance of Decentralisation are- (Any two) 
1. Develops initiative among subordinate- It helps to promote- self-reliance & confidence among 
subordinates. 
2. Develops managerial talent for the future- Decentralisation gives subordinates a chance to 
prove their abilities & creates a reservoir of qualified workforce. 
3. Quick decision making- Since decisions are taken at the points of action. Therefore, no approval 
of superiors & leads to quick decision making. 
4. Relief to top management- Decentralisation diminishes the amount of direct supervision 
exercised by superior over his subordinates because they are given freedom to act within the 
limits set by top management & top management can concentrate on important policies.  
 
(1/2 mark for identification and 1 ½ mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
b). Divisional structure- In a divisional structure, the organisation structure comprises of 
separate business units or divisions. Each division is self-contained as it develops expertise in all 
functions related to a product line 
(1/2 mark for naming and ½ mark for explanation) 
28- Factors affecting price determination-(any four) 
1. Product cost- One of the most important factors affecting the price is its cost. It includes cost of 
producing, distributing & selling the product. 
2. Utility& Demand- The product cost set the lower limit of price, the utility provided by the 
product &intensity of demand of product sets the highest price of the product. 
3. Extent of competition in the market- when firm does not face any competition it has complete 
freedom in fixing up the price. But when competition is more the price of the product is fixed 
keeping in mind the competitor’s price. 
4. Government regulations- In order to protect the interests of the consumers government has all 
rights to control prices of important commodities & services. 
5. Marketing methods used- The price of product is also affected by the methods & techniques 
used to promote the product. 
6. Pricing objectives- Apart from profit maximization other objectives are- 
a. Obtaining market share leadership-If firm wants to capture big share of market it has to 
keep its price low. 
b. Surviving in competitive market- To survive in a competitive market the firm has to offer 
discounts. 
c. Attaining product quality leadership- Generally high prices are charged to cover cost of 
R&D. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
OR 
The following are the components of physical distribution: 
1. Transportation is the means of carrying goods and raw material from the point of 
production to the point of sale. 
2. Warehousing refers to the act of storing and assorting products in order to create time 
utility in them. 
3. Inventory Control- A very important decision in respect of inventory is deciding the level of 
inventory.  
4. Order Processing- A good physical distribution system should provide for an accurate and 
speedy processing of orders. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
29. Time Study- It determines the standard time taken to perform a well-defined job. The standard time 
is fixed for the whole of the task by taking several readings. The method of time study will depend upon 
volume and frequency of task, the cycle time of operation and time measurement costs. 
For example- On the basis of several observations it is determined that standard time taken by the 
worker to make one cardboard box is 20 minutes. So in one hour she/he will make 3 boxes. Assuming 
that a worker has to put in 8 hours of work in a shift and deducting one hour for rest and lunch, it is 
determined that in 7 hours a worker makes 21 boxes @ 3 boxes per hour. Now this is the standard task 
a worker has to do. Wages can be decided accordingly.  
(1 mark for naming and 4 marks for explanation) 
    OR 
Differential Piece Wage System-  The standard time and other parameters should be determined on the 
basis of the work study discussed above. The workers can be classified as efficient and inefficient on the 
basis of these standards. He wanted to reward the efficient workers. So he introduced different rate of 
wage payment for those who performed above standard and for those who performed below standard. 
For example- it is determined that standard output per worker per day is 10 units and those who made 
standard or more than standard will get Rs. 50 per unit and those below will get Rs. 40 per unit. Now an 
efficient worker making 11 units will get 11x50= Rs. 550 per day whereas, a worker who makes 9 units 
will get 9x40= Rs. 360 per day. According to Taylor, the difference of Rs. 190 should be enough for the 
inefficient worker to be motivated to perform better. 
(1 mark for naming and 4 marks for explanation) 
30.  Standing plans are used for activities that occur regularly over a period of time. It is designed to 
ensure that internal operations of an organisation run smoothly. ( 1 mark) 
Single use plans- A single use plan is developed for a one-time event or project. Such a course of action 
is not likely to be repeated in the future..  ( 1 mark) 
The following type of plans discussed above are classified as standing plans:  
Page 4


Business Studies Class 12 (2019-20) 
Marking Scheme 
 
1. c). both science and art. 
2.  Coordination. 
3. a). Applicable only in large firms. 
4. a). The extent and nature of government intervention in business 
5.  b). Selecting an alternative 
6. b). Span of management. 
7. a). Direct recruitment 
8. a). Employer paid Insurance 
9. b). Personal barrier 
10. B) Leadership 
11. A) Revise the schedule 
12.c) Investment decision 
13 a). Trading on equity. 
14 d) Financing decision 
15 a). Protective function 
16 C). Production  
17 c) Product  
18 c) labelling 
19 False 
20. d) None of the above. 
21. Following are the tasks that Mr. Armstrong needs to perform as a production manager in his firm to 
carry out the plans laid down by the Top managers: (Any three) 
i. Interpret the policies framed by top management. 
ii. Ensure that the production department has the necessary personnel. 
iii. Assign necessary duties and responsibilities to them. 
iv. Motivate them to achieve the desired objectives. 
v. Cooperate with other departments for the smooth functioning of the organization. 
OR 
Following are the economic objectives of management 
1) Survival 
2) Profit 
3) Growth.         (3marks) 
22 Three elements of delegation are- 
1. Authority- Right of an individual to command his subordinates & to take action within the scope 
of his position. It is right to take decisions inherent in a job position. 
2.  Responsibility- it is the obligation of subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty. It arises 
from superior subordinate relationship. It flows upwards. 
3. Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome, i.e. subordinate will be 
answerable to superior for satisfactory performance of work. 
(1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x3 =3) 
23. Controlling. (1 mark)  
It is considered an indispensable function of management because of the following reasons (Any 
two):  
i. Accomplishing organizational goals. 
ii. Judging accuracy of standards. 
iii. Making efficient use of resources. 
iv. Improving employee motivation. 
v. Ensuring order and discipline. 
vi. Facilitating coordination in action.   (1x2=2) 
24 a) Public relations- It involves variety of activities designed to promote or protect company’s 
image & its individual products in the eyes of public. (1/2 mark for identification and ½ mark for 
explanation) (1 mark) 
b) Any two of the following are the promotional tools which may also be used: 
 i) Advertising 
ii) Personal Selling 
iii) Sales promotion (1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x2 = 2)   
 25.  a. Right to be heard 
b. Right to seek redressal 
c. Right to consumer education                                                                   (1x3=3) 
 
26. Following are the points of importance of understanding Business Environment discussed: (Any two) 
1. “Improve existing card facility--------“- It helps the firm in identifying threat and early warning signal.” 
2. “Exploit opportunity arising-------“ – It helps to identify opportunities and get first mover advantage. 
3. “Improve their performance---“- It helps in improving performance. 
4. “Planned to hire more-----guidelines to train sales force” –It helps in assisting in planning and policy 
formulation. 
(1/2 mark for quoting, ½ mark for identification, 1 mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
 
27. a).  Importance of Decentralisation are- (Any two) 
1. Develops initiative among subordinate- It helps to promote- self-reliance & confidence among 
subordinates. 
2. Develops managerial talent for the future- Decentralisation gives subordinates a chance to 
prove their abilities & creates a reservoir of qualified workforce. 
3. Quick decision making- Since decisions are taken at the points of action. Therefore, no approval 
of superiors & leads to quick decision making. 
4. Relief to top management- Decentralisation diminishes the amount of direct supervision 
exercised by superior over his subordinates because they are given freedom to act within the 
limits set by top management & top management can concentrate on important policies.  
 
(1/2 mark for identification and 1 ½ mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
b). Divisional structure- In a divisional structure, the organisation structure comprises of 
separate business units or divisions. Each division is self-contained as it develops expertise in all 
functions related to a product line 
(1/2 mark for naming and ½ mark for explanation) 
28- Factors affecting price determination-(any four) 
1. Product cost- One of the most important factors affecting the price is its cost. It includes cost of 
producing, distributing & selling the product. 
2. Utility& Demand- The product cost set the lower limit of price, the utility provided by the 
product &intensity of demand of product sets the highest price of the product. 
3. Extent of competition in the market- when firm does not face any competition it has complete 
freedom in fixing up the price. But when competition is more the price of the product is fixed 
keeping in mind the competitor’s price. 
4. Government regulations- In order to protect the interests of the consumers government has all 
rights to control prices of important commodities & services. 
5. Marketing methods used- The price of product is also affected by the methods & techniques 
used to promote the product. 
6. Pricing objectives- Apart from profit maximization other objectives are- 
a. Obtaining market share leadership-If firm wants to capture big share of market it has to 
keep its price low. 
b. Surviving in competitive market- To survive in a competitive market the firm has to offer 
discounts. 
c. Attaining product quality leadership- Generally high prices are charged to cover cost of 
R&D. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
OR 
The following are the components of physical distribution: 
1. Transportation is the means of carrying goods and raw material from the point of 
production to the point of sale. 
2. Warehousing refers to the act of storing and assorting products in order to create time 
utility in them. 
3. Inventory Control- A very important decision in respect of inventory is deciding the level of 
inventory.  
4. Order Processing- A good physical distribution system should provide for an accurate and 
speedy processing of orders. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
29. Time Study- It determines the standard time taken to perform a well-defined job. The standard time 
is fixed for the whole of the task by taking several readings. The method of time study will depend upon 
volume and frequency of task, the cycle time of operation and time measurement costs. 
For example- On the basis of several observations it is determined that standard time taken by the 
worker to make one cardboard box is 20 minutes. So in one hour she/he will make 3 boxes. Assuming 
that a worker has to put in 8 hours of work in a shift and deducting one hour for rest and lunch, it is 
determined that in 7 hours a worker makes 21 boxes @ 3 boxes per hour. Now this is the standard task 
a worker has to do. Wages can be decided accordingly.  
(1 mark for naming and 4 marks for explanation) 
    OR 
Differential Piece Wage System-  The standard time and other parameters should be determined on the 
basis of the work study discussed above. The workers can be classified as efficient and inefficient on the 
basis of these standards. He wanted to reward the efficient workers. So he introduced different rate of 
wage payment for those who performed above standard and for those who performed below standard. 
For example- it is determined that standard output per worker per day is 10 units and those who made 
standard or more than standard will get Rs. 50 per unit and those below will get Rs. 40 per unit. Now an 
efficient worker making 11 units will get 11x50= Rs. 550 per day whereas, a worker who makes 9 units 
will get 9x40= Rs. 360 per day. According to Taylor, the difference of Rs. 190 should be enough for the 
inefficient worker to be motivated to perform better. 
(1 mark for naming and 4 marks for explanation) 
30.  Standing plans are used for activities that occur regularly over a period of time. It is designed to 
ensure that internal operations of an organisation run smoothly. ( 1 mark) 
Single use plans- A single use plan is developed for a one-time event or project. Such a course of action 
is not likely to be repeated in the future..  ( 1 mark) 
The following type of plans discussed above are classified as standing plans:  
i. “changing the vendors…….”- Policy is a general statement that guides thinking or channelizes energies 
towards a particular direction. 
ii. “Seminar for higher levels……supervisory management”- Method provides the prescribed ways or 
manner in which a task has to be performed considering the objective.  
iii. “Attending the meeting not discretion----------------------------------- penalty”- Rules are specific 
statements that inform what is to be done. (1/2 mark for quoting; ½ mark for explaining) (1x3=3) 
31. Meaning- Decision to invest in fixed assets are known as capital budgeting decision. (1 mark) 
Factors affecting fixed capital requirement- (Any four) 
1.  Nature of business- The type of business has a bearing upon the fixed capital requirement. 
2. Scale of operation- A larger organization requires higher investment in fixed capital. 
3. Choice of technique- A capital intensive organization requires  higher investment in plant 
and machinery. 
4. Technology upgradation- Such organisations which use assets which are prone to 
obsolescence require higher fixed capital. 
5. Growth prospects-Higher growth of an organization generally requires higher investment 
in fixed assets. 
6. Diversification- With diversification the fixed capital requirements increase. 
7. Financing alternatives- Availability of leasing facility may reduce the funds required to be 
invested in fixed assets. 
8. Level of collaboration- Collaboration reduces the level of investment in fixed assets. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
OR 
Importance of financial planning: (Any five) 
1. It helps in forecasting what may happen in the future. 
2. It helps in avoiding business shocks and surprises. 
3. It helps in coordinating various  business functions. 
4. Reduce wastage, duplication of efforts. 
5. It links present with the future. 
6. It provides  link between investment and financing decision. 
7. It makes measurement of actual performance easier. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x5=5) 
32. Staffing (1 mark) 
Proper staffing ensures the following benefits to the organization- 
(i) helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs;  
(ii) makes for higher performance, by putting right person on the right job;  
(iii) ensures the continuous survival and growth of the enterprise through the succession 
planning for managers;  
(iv) helps to ensure optimum utilisation of the human resources. By avoiding overmanning, it 
prevents under-utilisation of personnel and high labour costs. At the same time it avoids 
disruption of work by indicating in advance the shortages of personnel; and  
(v) improves job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective assessment and fair 
rewarding of their contribution. 
(1 mark for each statement) 
33. Directing refers to the  process of instructing, guiding, counselling, motivating and leading people in 
the organisation to achieve its objectives.   (2 mark) 
The points of importance of directing are any four:- 
(i) Directing helps to initiate action by people in the organisation towards attainment of desired 
objectives.  
Page 5


Business Studies Class 12 (2019-20) 
Marking Scheme 
 
1. c). both science and art. 
2.  Coordination. 
3. a). Applicable only in large firms. 
4. a). The extent and nature of government intervention in business 
5.  b). Selecting an alternative 
6. b). Span of management. 
7. a). Direct recruitment 
8. a). Employer paid Insurance 
9. b). Personal barrier 
10. B) Leadership 
11. A) Revise the schedule 
12.c) Investment decision 
13 a). Trading on equity. 
14 d) Financing decision 
15 a). Protective function 
16 C). Production  
17 c) Product  
18 c) labelling 
19 False 
20. d) None of the above. 
21. Following are the tasks that Mr. Armstrong needs to perform as a production manager in his firm to 
carry out the plans laid down by the Top managers: (Any three) 
i. Interpret the policies framed by top management. 
ii. Ensure that the production department has the necessary personnel. 
iii. Assign necessary duties and responsibilities to them. 
iv. Motivate them to achieve the desired objectives. 
v. Cooperate with other departments for the smooth functioning of the organization. 
OR 
Following are the economic objectives of management 
1) Survival 
2) Profit 
3) Growth.         (3marks) 
22 Three elements of delegation are- 
1. Authority- Right of an individual to command his subordinates & to take action within the scope 
of his position. It is right to take decisions inherent in a job position. 
2.  Responsibility- it is the obligation of subordinate to properly perform the assigned duty. It arises 
from superior subordinate relationship. It flows upwards. 
3. Accountability implies being answerable for the final outcome, i.e. subordinate will be 
answerable to superior for satisfactory performance of work. 
(1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x3 =3) 
23. Controlling. (1 mark)  
It is considered an indispensable function of management because of the following reasons (Any 
two):  
i. Accomplishing organizational goals. 
ii. Judging accuracy of standards. 
iii. Making efficient use of resources. 
iv. Improving employee motivation. 
v. Ensuring order and discipline. 
vi. Facilitating coordination in action.   (1x2=2) 
24 a) Public relations- It involves variety of activities designed to promote or protect company’s 
image & its individual products in the eyes of public. (1/2 mark for identification and ½ mark for 
explanation) (1 mark) 
b) Any two of the following are the promotional tools which may also be used: 
 i) Advertising 
ii) Personal Selling 
iii) Sales promotion (1/2 mark for heading and ½ mark for explanation) (1x2 = 2)   
 25.  a. Right to be heard 
b. Right to seek redressal 
c. Right to consumer education                                                                   (1x3=3) 
 
26. Following are the points of importance of understanding Business Environment discussed: (Any two) 
1. “Improve existing card facility--------“- It helps the firm in identifying threat and early warning signal.” 
2. “Exploit opportunity arising-------“ – It helps to identify opportunities and get first mover advantage. 
3. “Improve their performance---“- It helps in improving performance. 
4. “Planned to hire more-----guidelines to train sales force” –It helps in assisting in planning and policy 
formulation. 
(1/2 mark for quoting, ½ mark for identification, 1 mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
 
27. a).  Importance of Decentralisation are- (Any two) 
1. Develops initiative among subordinate- It helps to promote- self-reliance & confidence among 
subordinates. 
2. Develops managerial talent for the future- Decentralisation gives subordinates a chance to 
prove their abilities & creates a reservoir of qualified workforce. 
3. Quick decision making- Since decisions are taken at the points of action. Therefore, no approval 
of superiors & leads to quick decision making. 
4. Relief to top management- Decentralisation diminishes the amount of direct supervision 
exercised by superior over his subordinates because they are given freedom to act within the 
limits set by top management & top management can concentrate on important policies.  
 
(1/2 mark for identification and 1 ½ mark for explanation) (2x2=4) 
b). Divisional structure- In a divisional structure, the organisation structure comprises of 
separate business units or divisions. Each division is self-contained as it develops expertise in all 
functions related to a product line 
(1/2 mark for naming and ½ mark for explanation) 
28- Factors affecting price determination-(any four) 
1. Product cost- One of the most important factors affecting the price is its cost. It includes cost of 
producing, distributing & selling the product. 
2. Utility& Demand- The product cost set the lower limit of price, the utility provided by the 
product &intensity of demand of product sets the highest price of the product. 
3. Extent of competition in the market- when firm does not face any competition it has complete 
freedom in fixing up the price. But when competition is more the price of the product is fixed 
keeping in mind the competitor’s price. 
4. Government regulations- In order to protect the interests of the consumers government has all 
rights to control prices of important commodities & services. 
5. Marketing methods used- The price of product is also affected by the methods & techniques 
used to promote the product. 
6. Pricing objectives- Apart from profit maximization other objectives are- 
a. Obtaining market share leadership-If firm wants to capture big share of market it has to 
keep its price low. 
b. Surviving in competitive market- To survive in a competitive market the firm has to offer 
discounts. 
c. Attaining product quality leadership- Generally high prices are charged to cover cost of 
R&D. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
OR 
The following are the components of physical distribution: 
1. Transportation is the means of carrying goods and raw material from the point of 
production to the point of sale. 
2. Warehousing refers to the act of storing and assorting products in order to create time 
utility in them. 
3. Inventory Control- A very important decision in respect of inventory is deciding the level of 
inventory.  
4. Order Processing- A good physical distribution system should provide for an accurate and 
speedy processing of orders. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
29. Time Study- It determines the standard time taken to perform a well-defined job. The standard time 
is fixed for the whole of the task by taking several readings. The method of time study will depend upon 
volume and frequency of task, the cycle time of operation and time measurement costs. 
For example- On the basis of several observations it is determined that standard time taken by the 
worker to make one cardboard box is 20 minutes. So in one hour she/he will make 3 boxes. Assuming 
that a worker has to put in 8 hours of work in a shift and deducting one hour for rest and lunch, it is 
determined that in 7 hours a worker makes 21 boxes @ 3 boxes per hour. Now this is the standard task 
a worker has to do. Wages can be decided accordingly.  
(1 mark for naming and 4 marks for explanation) 
    OR 
Differential Piece Wage System-  The standard time and other parameters should be determined on the 
basis of the work study discussed above. The workers can be classified as efficient and inefficient on the 
basis of these standards. He wanted to reward the efficient workers. So he introduced different rate of 
wage payment for those who performed above standard and for those who performed below standard. 
For example- it is determined that standard output per worker per day is 10 units and those who made 
standard or more than standard will get Rs. 50 per unit and those below will get Rs. 40 per unit. Now an 
efficient worker making 11 units will get 11x50= Rs. 550 per day whereas, a worker who makes 9 units 
will get 9x40= Rs. 360 per day. According to Taylor, the difference of Rs. 190 should be enough for the 
inefficient worker to be motivated to perform better. 
(1 mark for naming and 4 marks for explanation) 
30.  Standing plans are used for activities that occur regularly over a period of time. It is designed to 
ensure that internal operations of an organisation run smoothly. ( 1 mark) 
Single use plans- A single use plan is developed for a one-time event or project. Such a course of action 
is not likely to be repeated in the future..  ( 1 mark) 
The following type of plans discussed above are classified as standing plans:  
i. “changing the vendors…….”- Policy is a general statement that guides thinking or channelizes energies 
towards a particular direction. 
ii. “Seminar for higher levels……supervisory management”- Method provides the prescribed ways or 
manner in which a task has to be performed considering the objective.  
iii. “Attending the meeting not discretion----------------------------------- penalty”- Rules are specific 
statements that inform what is to be done. (1/2 mark for quoting; ½ mark for explaining) (1x3=3) 
31. Meaning- Decision to invest in fixed assets are known as capital budgeting decision. (1 mark) 
Factors affecting fixed capital requirement- (Any four) 
1.  Nature of business- The type of business has a bearing upon the fixed capital requirement. 
2. Scale of operation- A larger organization requires higher investment in fixed capital. 
3. Choice of technique- A capital intensive organization requires  higher investment in plant 
and machinery. 
4. Technology upgradation- Such organisations which use assets which are prone to 
obsolescence require higher fixed capital. 
5. Growth prospects-Higher growth of an organization generally requires higher investment 
in fixed assets. 
6. Diversification- With diversification the fixed capital requirements increase. 
7. Financing alternatives- Availability of leasing facility may reduce the funds required to be 
invested in fixed assets. 
8. Level of collaboration- Collaboration reduces the level of investment in fixed assets. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x4=4) 
OR 
Importance of financial planning: (Any five) 
1. It helps in forecasting what may happen in the future. 
2. It helps in avoiding business shocks and surprises. 
3. It helps in coordinating various  business functions. 
4. Reduce wastage, duplication of efforts. 
5. It links present with the future. 
6. It provides  link between investment and financing decision. 
7. It makes measurement of actual performance easier. 
(1 mark for each statement) (1x5=5) 
32. Staffing (1 mark) 
Proper staffing ensures the following benefits to the organization- 
(i) helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs;  
(ii) makes for higher performance, by putting right person on the right job;  
(iii) ensures the continuous survival and growth of the enterprise through the succession 
planning for managers;  
(iv) helps to ensure optimum utilisation of the human resources. By avoiding overmanning, it 
prevents under-utilisation of personnel and high labour costs. At the same time it avoids 
disruption of work by indicating in advance the shortages of personnel; and  
(v) improves job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective assessment and fair 
rewarding of their contribution. 
(1 mark for each statement) 
33. Directing refers to the  process of instructing, guiding, counselling, motivating and leading people in 
the organisation to achieve its objectives.   (2 mark) 
The points of importance of directing are any four:- 
(i) Directing helps to initiate action by people in the organisation towards attainment of desired 
objectives.  
(ii) Directing integrates employees’ efforts in the organisation in such a way that every individual effort 
contributes to the organisational performance. Thus, it ensures that the individuals work for 
organisational goals.  
(iii) Directing guides employees to fully realise their potential and capabilities by motivating and 
providing effective leadership 
(iv) Directing facilitates introduction of needed changes in the organisation.  
(v) Effective directing helps to bring stability and balance in the organisation since it 
fosters cooperation and commitment among the people and helps to achieve balance 
among various groups, activities and the departments. 
(1 mark for each statement) 
OR 
Motivation- Motivation means incitement or inducement to act or move.  It means the process of 
making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve certain organisational goals. (2 mark) 
Features of motivation- 
1. It is an internal feeling. 
2. It produces goal directed behavior. 
3. It can be either positive or negative. 
4. It is a complex process. 
(1 mark for each statement) 
34. Method of floatation used is offer for sale- In this method securities are not offered directly to the 
public but are offered for sale through intermediaries like stock brokers. (1 mark for identification and 
1½  mark for explanation) 
Other methods are-  
1. Offer through prospectus- This method involves inviting subscription from public through 
prospectus. The issue may be underwritten & has to be listed with one stock exchange. 
2. E-IPO-A company proposing to issue capital to the public through online system of stock 
exchange.  
(1/2 mark for naming and 1 and ½ mark for explanation) 
OR  
a. The steps discussed in above para are- 
1. Selection of broker- The buying & selling can be through SEBI broker. The first step is to 
select a broker who will buy/sell securities on behalf of investor. 
2. Opening DEMAT account with a depository participant. (1x2=2) 
b. The next four steps of the trading procedure: 
1. Placing an order- Investor places an order with the broker to buy or sell shares.  Brokers go 
ahead with the deal & order confirmation slip is issued to the investor by the broker. 
2. Match the order- The broker will go online& match the share & the price. 
3. Executing order- When the shares can be bought & sold at the price mentioned it will be 
communicated to the broker terminal & order will be executed electronically. The broker 
will issue trade confirmation slip to investor. 
4. Issue of contract note- After the trade has been executed within 24 hours the broker 
issues contract note. It contains details regarding no. & price of shares. 
(1 mark for each statement) 
 
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of Commerce

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

past year papers

,

CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Business Studies(BST) (2019-20) Commerce Notes | EduRev

,

Semester Notes

,

study material

,

MCQs

,

mock tests for examination

,

Viva Questions

,

Exam

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

pdf

,

Summary

,

Sample Paper

,

CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Business Studies(BST) (2019-20) Commerce Notes | EduRev

,

Free

,

practice quizzes

,

CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Business Studies(BST) (2019-20) Commerce Notes | EduRev

,

Important questions

,

video lectures

,

Objective type Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

ppt

;