CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Sociology (2019-20) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : CBSE Marking Scheme with Solution Sociology (2019-20) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


MARKING SCHEME 
SOCIOLOGY (039) 
CLASS XII 
 
 
 SECTION-A 
 
 
1.  The term Demography is of Greek origin and is composed of two words 
demos meaning people and graphien implying describe. 
1 
2.  According to Robert Malthus, population rises in geometric 
progression whereas agricultural production grows in arithmetic 
progression. 
1 
3.  Correct the given incorrect statement. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Population Programme. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Family Welfare Programme 
1 
4.  The changing age structure offers a demographic dividend for India. 
Identify from the following choices, the relevant age range that allows 
for demographic dividend- 
a) 0-14 
b) 15-64 
c) 64-75 
d) 75 and above 
1 
5.  A bill of exchange which allowed merchants to engage in long distance 
trade during pre-colonial period in India is called Hundi.. 
 
1 
6.  The goods that people buy and useconveys their socio-economic 
status. Status-symbol is the term coined to refer to this relationship by 
Max Weber. 
1 
7.  There is a controversy about the sale of kidneys by the poor to cater to 
rich patients who need kidney transplants. This refers to the negative 
social effects of the process of commodification. 
1 
8.  Subsidies lower the cost of farming because the government pays part 
of the price charged for inputs 
1 
9.  Correct the given statement. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and easy to define. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and hard to define. 
1 
10.  “Privileged minorities such as extremely wealthy people are not usually 
referred to as minorities.” Is this statement true or false?- True 
1 
11.  Sanskritisation has been criticised for which of the following 
reasons? 
a) It allows for positional change. 
b) It allows for structural change. 
c) It stops exclusion and discrimination. 
d) It accepts characteristics of Dalit culture. 
 
1 
Page 2


MARKING SCHEME 
SOCIOLOGY (039) 
CLASS XII 
 
 
 SECTION-A 
 
 
1.  The term Demography is of Greek origin and is composed of two words 
demos meaning people and graphien implying describe. 
1 
2.  According to Robert Malthus, population rises in geometric 
progression whereas agricultural production grows in arithmetic 
progression. 
1 
3.  Correct the given incorrect statement. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Population Programme. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Family Welfare Programme 
1 
4.  The changing age structure offers a demographic dividend for India. 
Identify from the following choices, the relevant age range that allows 
for demographic dividend- 
a) 0-14 
b) 15-64 
c) 64-75 
d) 75 and above 
1 
5.  A bill of exchange which allowed merchants to engage in long distance 
trade during pre-colonial period in India is called Hundi.. 
 
1 
6.  The goods that people buy and useconveys their socio-economic 
status. Status-symbol is the term coined to refer to this relationship by 
Max Weber. 
1 
7.  There is a controversy about the sale of kidneys by the poor to cater to 
rich patients who need kidney transplants. This refers to the negative 
social effects of the process of commodification. 
1 
8.  Subsidies lower the cost of farming because the government pays part 
of the price charged for inputs 
1 
9.  Correct the given statement. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and easy to define. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and hard to define. 
1 
10.  “Privileged minorities such as extremely wealthy people are not usually 
referred to as minorities.” Is this statement true or false?- True 
1 
11.  Sanskritisation has been criticised for which of the following 
reasons? 
a) It allows for positional change. 
b) It allows for structural change. 
c) It stops exclusion and discrimination. 
d) It accepts characteristics of Dalit culture. 
 
1 
12.  In the 19
th
 century, orthodox members of the Hindu community in 
Bengal formed an organisation called Dharma Sabha debating the 
issue of Sati. 
1 
13.  A system of democracy in which the members of a group or community 
participate collectively in decision making. This is called- 
a) dictatorship 
b) monarchy 
c) representative democracy 
d) participatory democracy 
1 
14.  Lawcarries the means to coerce whereas the essence of justice is 
fairness. 
 
1 
15.  Democratic values and institutions are purely western. Is this statement 
true or false?-False 
 
1 
16.  Nyaya Panchayat can impose fines but cannot award a sentence. 
 
1 
17.  The Land Ceiling Act proved to be toothless as some rich farmers 
actually divorced their wives but continued to live with them under 
Benami Transfers 
1 
18.  Farmer suicide is a matrix event. Which of the following options is not 
responsible for farmer suicide? 
a) educational expenses 
b) agricultural loans 
c) diversification 
d) marriage and dowry 
1 
19. A situation where people do not enjoy the work but continue to do it 
only in order to survive is called Alienation. 
1 
20. Earlier architects and engineers had to be skilled draughtsmen but now 
computer does a lot of work for them. This phenomenon is called De-
Skilling. 
1 
 SECTION-B 
 
 
21. Identify the reasons for the rapid growth of metropolises. 
? The metros attract migrants from the rural as well as from small 
towns. 
? With the mass-media’s primary focus on these cities, the public 
face of India is becoming more and more urban rather than 
rural. 
2 
22. What are the two sets of principles to understand the theoretical 
interpretation of caste? 
? Difference and separation: the scriptural rules ranging 
from marriage to food sharing. 
Wholism and hierarchy: higher and lower in status based on purity and 
pollution 
2 
23. What do you understand by the phrase Invisible Hand? 
? Proposed by Adam Smith 
? Individual transactions & own self-interest leads to 
looking after the interests of all, referred as unseen force. 
OR 
2 
Page 3


MARKING SCHEME 
SOCIOLOGY (039) 
CLASS XII 
 
 
 SECTION-A 
 
 
1.  The term Demography is of Greek origin and is composed of two words 
demos meaning people and graphien implying describe. 
1 
2.  According to Robert Malthus, population rises in geometric 
progression whereas agricultural production grows in arithmetic 
progression. 
1 
3.  Correct the given incorrect statement. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Population Programme. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Family Welfare Programme 
1 
4.  The changing age structure offers a demographic dividend for India. 
Identify from the following choices, the relevant age range that allows 
for demographic dividend- 
a) 0-14 
b) 15-64 
c) 64-75 
d) 75 and above 
1 
5.  A bill of exchange which allowed merchants to engage in long distance 
trade during pre-colonial period in India is called Hundi.. 
 
1 
6.  The goods that people buy and useconveys their socio-economic 
status. Status-symbol is the term coined to refer to this relationship by 
Max Weber. 
1 
7.  There is a controversy about the sale of kidneys by the poor to cater to 
rich patients who need kidney transplants. This refers to the negative 
social effects of the process of commodification. 
1 
8.  Subsidies lower the cost of farming because the government pays part 
of the price charged for inputs 
1 
9.  Correct the given statement. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and easy to define. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and hard to define. 
1 
10.  “Privileged minorities such as extremely wealthy people are not usually 
referred to as minorities.” Is this statement true or false?- True 
1 
11.  Sanskritisation has been criticised for which of the following 
reasons? 
a) It allows for positional change. 
b) It allows for structural change. 
c) It stops exclusion and discrimination. 
d) It accepts characteristics of Dalit culture. 
 
1 
12.  In the 19
th
 century, orthodox members of the Hindu community in 
Bengal formed an organisation called Dharma Sabha debating the 
issue of Sati. 
1 
13.  A system of democracy in which the members of a group or community 
participate collectively in decision making. This is called- 
a) dictatorship 
b) monarchy 
c) representative democracy 
d) participatory democracy 
1 
14.  Lawcarries the means to coerce whereas the essence of justice is 
fairness. 
 
1 
15.  Democratic values and institutions are purely western. Is this statement 
true or false?-False 
 
1 
16.  Nyaya Panchayat can impose fines but cannot award a sentence. 
 
1 
17.  The Land Ceiling Act proved to be toothless as some rich farmers 
actually divorced their wives but continued to live with them under 
Benami Transfers 
1 
18.  Farmer suicide is a matrix event. Which of the following options is not 
responsible for farmer suicide? 
a) educational expenses 
b) agricultural loans 
c) diversification 
d) marriage and dowry 
1 
19. A situation where people do not enjoy the work but continue to do it 
only in order to survive is called Alienation. 
1 
20. Earlier architects and engineers had to be skilled draughtsmen but now 
computer does a lot of work for them. This phenomenon is called De-
Skilling. 
1 
 SECTION-B 
 
 
21. Identify the reasons for the rapid growth of metropolises. 
? The metros attract migrants from the rural as well as from small 
towns. 
? With the mass-media’s primary focus on these cities, the public 
face of India is becoming more and more urban rather than 
rural. 
2 
22. What are the two sets of principles to understand the theoretical 
interpretation of caste? 
? Difference and separation: the scriptural rules ranging 
from marriage to food sharing. 
Wholism and hierarchy: higher and lower in status based on purity and 
pollution 
2 
23. What do you understand by the phrase Invisible Hand? 
? Proposed by Adam Smith 
? Individual transactions & own self-interest leads to 
looking after the interests of all, referred as unseen force. 
OR 
2 
What is marketisation? 
? Use of markets or market based processes rather than 
government regulations, 
? Policies to solve social, political & economic problem for 
e.g. privatization 
24. Illustrate the correlation between disability and poverty. 
? Malnutrition, mothers weakened by frequent child birth, 
inadequate immunization, accidents in overcrowded 
homes etc. 
? Disability also creates poverty by increasing isolation & 
economic strain, not only for the individual but for the 
family also. 
OR 
State the meaning of the term ‘Social’ in the phrase Social Inequality 
and Exclusion. 
? Not about individual but groups. 
? Not just economic though a link is found between social 
& economic inequality. 
It is systematic & structured. 
2 
25. Examine how cultural diversity presents tough challenges. 
? Cultural identities are very powerful & can arouse intense 
passion. 
? Able to mobilize large nos. of people. 
? Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by 
economic & social inequalities that provoke oppositions 
from other communities. 
? Situation becomes worse when scarce resources like 
river waters, jobs of Govt., have to be shared. 
2 
26. How has English language impacted our society? 
? Widely used and created a middle class of educated 
Indians. 
? A major contributor to growth of nationalism. 
? Its knowledge has given Indians an edge over others in 
the job market (Post Globalization). 
2 
27. How can we say that rituals have secular dimensions as distinguished 
from secular goals? 
? Provides occasion to socialize with friends and kin, to 
show off wealth and style to enhance social status. 
Rituals have a new dimension of social, economic and political status 
for e.g. no. of VIPs attending wedding provide the index to the 
household’s standing in the local community 
2 
28. Exemplify how sanskritisation is a gendered process. 
? Upper caste practices like purdah system, low age of 
marriage. 
Dowry in place of bride price is regressive as far as women 
are concerned 
2 
29. What was the significance of 73
rd
 Amendment? 
? Monumental in bringing voice to the people. 
? Reservation of 1/3 rd seats for women. 
2 
Page 4


MARKING SCHEME 
SOCIOLOGY (039) 
CLASS XII 
 
 
 SECTION-A 
 
 
1.  The term Demography is of Greek origin and is composed of two words 
demos meaning people and graphien implying describe. 
1 
2.  According to Robert Malthus, population rises in geometric 
progression whereas agricultural production grows in arithmetic 
progression. 
1 
3.  Correct the given incorrect statement. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Population Programme. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Family Welfare Programme 
1 
4.  The changing age structure offers a demographic dividend for India. 
Identify from the following choices, the relevant age range that allows 
for demographic dividend- 
a) 0-14 
b) 15-64 
c) 64-75 
d) 75 and above 
1 
5.  A bill of exchange which allowed merchants to engage in long distance 
trade during pre-colonial period in India is called Hundi.. 
 
1 
6.  The goods that people buy and useconveys their socio-economic 
status. Status-symbol is the term coined to refer to this relationship by 
Max Weber. 
1 
7.  There is a controversy about the sale of kidneys by the poor to cater to 
rich patients who need kidney transplants. This refers to the negative 
social effects of the process of commodification. 
1 
8.  Subsidies lower the cost of farming because the government pays part 
of the price charged for inputs 
1 
9.  Correct the given statement. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and easy to define. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and hard to define. 
1 
10.  “Privileged minorities such as extremely wealthy people are not usually 
referred to as minorities.” Is this statement true or false?- True 
1 
11.  Sanskritisation has been criticised for which of the following 
reasons? 
a) It allows for positional change. 
b) It allows for structural change. 
c) It stops exclusion and discrimination. 
d) It accepts characteristics of Dalit culture. 
 
1 
12.  In the 19
th
 century, orthodox members of the Hindu community in 
Bengal formed an organisation called Dharma Sabha debating the 
issue of Sati. 
1 
13.  A system of democracy in which the members of a group or community 
participate collectively in decision making. This is called- 
a) dictatorship 
b) monarchy 
c) representative democracy 
d) participatory democracy 
1 
14.  Lawcarries the means to coerce whereas the essence of justice is 
fairness. 
 
1 
15.  Democratic values and institutions are purely western. Is this statement 
true or false?-False 
 
1 
16.  Nyaya Panchayat can impose fines but cannot award a sentence. 
 
1 
17.  The Land Ceiling Act proved to be toothless as some rich farmers 
actually divorced their wives but continued to live with them under 
Benami Transfers 
1 
18.  Farmer suicide is a matrix event. Which of the following options is not 
responsible for farmer suicide? 
a) educational expenses 
b) agricultural loans 
c) diversification 
d) marriage and dowry 
1 
19. A situation where people do not enjoy the work but continue to do it 
only in order to survive is called Alienation. 
1 
20. Earlier architects and engineers had to be skilled draughtsmen but now 
computer does a lot of work for them. This phenomenon is called De-
Skilling. 
1 
 SECTION-B 
 
 
21. Identify the reasons for the rapid growth of metropolises. 
? The metros attract migrants from the rural as well as from small 
towns. 
? With the mass-media’s primary focus on these cities, the public 
face of India is becoming more and more urban rather than 
rural. 
2 
22. What are the two sets of principles to understand the theoretical 
interpretation of caste? 
? Difference and separation: the scriptural rules ranging 
from marriage to food sharing. 
Wholism and hierarchy: higher and lower in status based on purity and 
pollution 
2 
23. What do you understand by the phrase Invisible Hand? 
? Proposed by Adam Smith 
? Individual transactions & own self-interest leads to 
looking after the interests of all, referred as unseen force. 
OR 
2 
What is marketisation? 
? Use of markets or market based processes rather than 
government regulations, 
? Policies to solve social, political & economic problem for 
e.g. privatization 
24. Illustrate the correlation between disability and poverty. 
? Malnutrition, mothers weakened by frequent child birth, 
inadequate immunization, accidents in overcrowded 
homes etc. 
? Disability also creates poverty by increasing isolation & 
economic strain, not only for the individual but for the 
family also. 
OR 
State the meaning of the term ‘Social’ in the phrase Social Inequality 
and Exclusion. 
? Not about individual but groups. 
? Not just economic though a link is found between social 
& economic inequality. 
It is systematic & structured. 
2 
25. Examine how cultural diversity presents tough challenges. 
? Cultural identities are very powerful & can arouse intense 
passion. 
? Able to mobilize large nos. of people. 
? Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by 
economic & social inequalities that provoke oppositions 
from other communities. 
? Situation becomes worse when scarce resources like 
river waters, jobs of Govt., have to be shared. 
2 
26. How has English language impacted our society? 
? Widely used and created a middle class of educated 
Indians. 
? A major contributor to growth of nationalism. 
? Its knowledge has given Indians an edge over others in 
the job market (Post Globalization). 
2 
27. How can we say that rituals have secular dimensions as distinguished 
from secular goals? 
? Provides occasion to socialize with friends and kin, to 
show off wealth and style to enhance social status. 
Rituals have a new dimension of social, economic and political status 
for e.g. no. of VIPs attending wedding provide the index to the 
household’s standing in the local community 
2 
28. Exemplify how sanskritisation is a gendered process. 
? Upper caste practices like purdah system, low age of 
marriage. 
Dowry in place of bride price is regressive as far as women 
are concerned 
2 
29. What was the significance of 73
rd
 Amendment? 
? Monumental in bringing voice to the people. 
? Reservation of 1/3 rd seats for women. 
2 
? 17% seats reserved for SC women & tribes. 
? Local resources controlled by local bodies. 
OR 
What was the argument given by Dr. Ambedkar against the institution 
of Panchayati Raj? 
? Local elites and upper castes would continue to exploit 
lower caste through power given to Panchayats. 
? Leading to further exploitation of lower castes & 
downtrodden. 
 SECTION-C 
 
 
30. Tribals have paid a disproportionate price for the development of the 
rest of the Indian Society. Identify the reasons. 
? This kind of development benefitted the mainstream at 
the expense of the Tribes. 
? National Development particularly in the Nehruvian Era 
involved building of large Dams. 
? Dispossessing tribal of their land resulted as a necessary 
by-product of the exploitation of minerals and utilisation 
of favorable sites for setting up hydroelectric power 
plants in Tribal areas. 
? Loss of forests was a major blow to the tribal 
communities. The coming in of private property 
adversely affected the tribal community based forms of 
collective ownership. Forests were systematically 
exploited in British times and continued after 
Independence. 
? Series of Dams built on Narmada where most of the 
costs and benefits seem to flow disproportionately to 
different communities and regions. 
? Tribal community regions started experiencing problem 
of heavy in migration of Non Tribals due to pressure of 
Development. This threatens to disrupt and overwhelm 
tribal communities and cultures besides accelerating 
exploitation. 
OR 
Show your understanding of the concept of role conflict using the case 
study of Khasi tribes. 
? The intense contradiction in the matrilineal system arises 
from the separation of line of descent and inheritance on 
one hand and structure of authority and control on the 
other. 
? The former which links mother to the daughter comes in 
conflict with the latter which links the mother’s brother to 
the sister’s son. 
? This generates role conflict for men, they are torn 
between their responsibilities of their natal house on one 
hand and to their wife and children on the other. 
? The situation generated by such a conflict affects khasi 
women as they can never be fully assured that her 
4 
Page 5


MARKING SCHEME 
SOCIOLOGY (039) 
CLASS XII 
 
 
 SECTION-A 
 
 
1.  The term Demography is of Greek origin and is composed of two words 
demos meaning people and graphien implying describe. 
1 
2.  According to Robert Malthus, population rises in geometric 
progression whereas agricultural production grows in arithmetic 
progression. 
1 
3.  Correct the given incorrect statement. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Population Programme. 
The National Family Planning Programme was renamed as the 
National Family Welfare Programme 
1 
4.  The changing age structure offers a demographic dividend for India. 
Identify from the following choices, the relevant age range that allows 
for demographic dividend- 
a) 0-14 
b) 15-64 
c) 64-75 
d) 75 and above 
1 
5.  A bill of exchange which allowed merchants to engage in long distance 
trade during pre-colonial period in India is called Hundi.. 
 
1 
6.  The goods that people buy and useconveys their socio-economic 
status. Status-symbol is the term coined to refer to this relationship by 
Max Weber. 
1 
7.  There is a controversy about the sale of kidneys by the poor to cater to 
rich patients who need kidney transplants. This refers to the negative 
social effects of the process of commodification. 
1 
8.  Subsidies lower the cost of farming because the government pays part 
of the price charged for inputs 
1 
9.  Correct the given statement. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and easy to define. 
A nation is a peculiar sort of community that is easy to describe 
and hard to define. 
1 
10.  “Privileged minorities such as extremely wealthy people are not usually 
referred to as minorities.” Is this statement true or false?- True 
1 
11.  Sanskritisation has been criticised for which of the following 
reasons? 
a) It allows for positional change. 
b) It allows for structural change. 
c) It stops exclusion and discrimination. 
d) It accepts characteristics of Dalit culture. 
 
1 
12.  In the 19
th
 century, orthodox members of the Hindu community in 
Bengal formed an organisation called Dharma Sabha debating the 
issue of Sati. 
1 
13.  A system of democracy in which the members of a group or community 
participate collectively in decision making. This is called- 
a) dictatorship 
b) monarchy 
c) representative democracy 
d) participatory democracy 
1 
14.  Lawcarries the means to coerce whereas the essence of justice is 
fairness. 
 
1 
15.  Democratic values and institutions are purely western. Is this statement 
true or false?-False 
 
1 
16.  Nyaya Panchayat can impose fines but cannot award a sentence. 
 
1 
17.  The Land Ceiling Act proved to be toothless as some rich farmers 
actually divorced their wives but continued to live with them under 
Benami Transfers 
1 
18.  Farmer suicide is a matrix event. Which of the following options is not 
responsible for farmer suicide? 
a) educational expenses 
b) agricultural loans 
c) diversification 
d) marriage and dowry 
1 
19. A situation where people do not enjoy the work but continue to do it 
only in order to survive is called Alienation. 
1 
20. Earlier architects and engineers had to be skilled draughtsmen but now 
computer does a lot of work for them. This phenomenon is called De-
Skilling. 
1 
 SECTION-B 
 
 
21. Identify the reasons for the rapid growth of metropolises. 
? The metros attract migrants from the rural as well as from small 
towns. 
? With the mass-media’s primary focus on these cities, the public 
face of India is becoming more and more urban rather than 
rural. 
2 
22. What are the two sets of principles to understand the theoretical 
interpretation of caste? 
? Difference and separation: the scriptural rules ranging 
from marriage to food sharing. 
Wholism and hierarchy: higher and lower in status based on purity and 
pollution 
2 
23. What do you understand by the phrase Invisible Hand? 
? Proposed by Adam Smith 
? Individual transactions & own self-interest leads to 
looking after the interests of all, referred as unseen force. 
OR 
2 
What is marketisation? 
? Use of markets or market based processes rather than 
government regulations, 
? Policies to solve social, political & economic problem for 
e.g. privatization 
24. Illustrate the correlation between disability and poverty. 
? Malnutrition, mothers weakened by frequent child birth, 
inadequate immunization, accidents in overcrowded 
homes etc. 
? Disability also creates poverty by increasing isolation & 
economic strain, not only for the individual but for the 
family also. 
OR 
State the meaning of the term ‘Social’ in the phrase Social Inequality 
and Exclusion. 
? Not about individual but groups. 
? Not just economic though a link is found between social 
& economic inequality. 
It is systematic & structured. 
2 
25. Examine how cultural diversity presents tough challenges. 
? Cultural identities are very powerful & can arouse intense 
passion. 
? Able to mobilize large nos. of people. 
? Sometimes cultural differences are accompanied by 
economic & social inequalities that provoke oppositions 
from other communities. 
? Situation becomes worse when scarce resources like 
river waters, jobs of Govt., have to be shared. 
2 
26. How has English language impacted our society? 
? Widely used and created a middle class of educated 
Indians. 
? A major contributor to growth of nationalism. 
? Its knowledge has given Indians an edge over others in 
the job market (Post Globalization). 
2 
27. How can we say that rituals have secular dimensions as distinguished 
from secular goals? 
? Provides occasion to socialize with friends and kin, to 
show off wealth and style to enhance social status. 
Rituals have a new dimension of social, economic and political status 
for e.g. no. of VIPs attending wedding provide the index to the 
household’s standing in the local community 
2 
28. Exemplify how sanskritisation is a gendered process. 
? Upper caste practices like purdah system, low age of 
marriage. 
Dowry in place of bride price is regressive as far as women 
are concerned 
2 
29. What was the significance of 73
rd
 Amendment? 
? Monumental in bringing voice to the people. 
? Reservation of 1/3 rd seats for women. 
2 
? 17% seats reserved for SC women & tribes. 
? Local resources controlled by local bodies. 
OR 
What was the argument given by Dr. Ambedkar against the institution 
of Panchayati Raj? 
? Local elites and upper castes would continue to exploit 
lower caste through power given to Panchayats. 
? Leading to further exploitation of lower castes & 
downtrodden. 
 SECTION-C 
 
 
30. Tribals have paid a disproportionate price for the development of the 
rest of the Indian Society. Identify the reasons. 
? This kind of development benefitted the mainstream at 
the expense of the Tribes. 
? National Development particularly in the Nehruvian Era 
involved building of large Dams. 
? Dispossessing tribal of their land resulted as a necessary 
by-product of the exploitation of minerals and utilisation 
of favorable sites for setting up hydroelectric power 
plants in Tribal areas. 
? Loss of forests was a major blow to the tribal 
communities. The coming in of private property 
adversely affected the tribal community based forms of 
collective ownership. Forests were systematically 
exploited in British times and continued after 
Independence. 
? Series of Dams built on Narmada where most of the 
costs and benefits seem to flow disproportionately to 
different communities and regions. 
? Tribal community regions started experiencing problem 
of heavy in migration of Non Tribals due to pressure of 
Development. This threatens to disrupt and overwhelm 
tribal communities and cultures besides accelerating 
exploitation. 
OR 
Show your understanding of the concept of role conflict using the case 
study of Khasi tribes. 
? The intense contradiction in the matrilineal system arises 
from the separation of line of descent and inheritance on 
one hand and structure of authority and control on the 
other. 
? The former which links mother to the daughter comes in 
conflict with the latter which links the mother’s brother to 
the sister’s son. 
? This generates role conflict for men, they are torn 
between their responsibilities of their natal house on one 
hand and to their wife and children on the other. 
? The situation generated by such a conflict affects khasi 
women as they can never be fully assured that her 
4 
husband can never find his sister’s house more 
congenial place than her own. 
? Sister is apprehensive of her brother’s commitment for 
her welfare because the wife with whom he lives can pull 
him away from his natal responsibilities. 
? Women are more adversely affected by this role conflict 
than men because system is more lenient for men and 
there is a transgression of rules. 
31. What is social stratification? Explain its key principles. 
? Social stratification is a system by which categories of 
people is a society are ranked in hierarchy. 
Key Conepts: 
? Social stratification is a characteristic of society and not 
simply a function of individual differences. 
? Social Stratification persists over generations. 
? Social stratification is supported by the patterns of belief 
and ideology. 
4 
32. Elucidate the Western and Indian meaning of secularism. 
? In the western context the main sense of secularism has 
to do with the separation of church and state. 
? The separation of religious and political authority marked 
a major turning point in the social history of the west. 
? This separation was related to the process of 
“secularization” or the progressive retreat of religion from 
public life, as it was converted from a mandatory 
obligation to a voluntary personal practice. 
? The Indian sense of secularism implies equal respect for 
all religions, rather than separation or distancing. For 
example, the secular Indian state declares public 
holidays to mark the festivals of all religions. 
OR 
Outline the Assimilationist and Integrationist policies of nation building. 
Give suitable examples for the same. 
Policy of Assimilation: Outright suppression of the 
ethnic religious or linguistic groups.try to erode cultural 
differences between the groups. 
Policy of Integration: seek to assert a single national 
identity by attempting to eliminate ethno national and 
cultural differences from public and political arena while 
allowing them in private domain. 
? Centralising all policies to forums where dominant group 
constitutes the majority and eliminating the autonomy of 
local or minority groups. 
? Imposing a unified legal and judicial system based on the 
dominant groups traditions and abolishing alternative 
systems used by other groups. 
? Adopting the dominant groups language and culture 
through national institution including state controlled 
media. 
? Adoption state symbols celebrating the dominant groups 
4 
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