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CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

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CBSE Class 12 Economics
General Instructions:


All questions in both the sections are compulsory.
Marks for questions are indicated against each question.
Question No. 1 -5 and 16 -20 are very short answer questions carrying 1 mark each.
They are required to be answered in one sentence.
Question No. 6 -8 and 21 -23 are short answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 60 words each.
Question No. 9 -11 and 24 -26 are also short answer questions carrying 4 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 70 words each.
Question No. 12 -15 and 27 -30 are long answer questions carrying 6 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 100 words each.
Answers should be brief and to the point and the above word limit be adhered to as
far as possible.

Q1. The demand of a commodity when measured through the expenditure approach is inelastic. A fall in its price will result in:
(choose the correct alternative)
(a) no change in expenditure on it.
(b) increase in expenditure on it.
(c) decrease in expenditure on it.
(d) any one of the above.
Ans.
(c) Decrease in expenditure on it

Q2. As we move along a downward sloping straight-line demand curve from left to right, price elasticity of demand: (choose the correct alternative)
(a) remains unchanged
(b) goes on falling
(c) goes on rising
(d) falls initially then rises
Ans.
(b) Goes on falling

Q3. Define market demand.
Ans.
Sum of the quantities that all consumers of a commodity are willing to buy at a given price during a period of time.

Q4. Average revenue and price are always equal under: (choose the correct alternative)
(a) perfect competition only
(b) monopolistic competition only
(c) monopoly only
(d) all market forms
Ans.
(d) All market forms

Q5. State any one feature of oligopoly
Ans.

(i) There are only a few firms or a few large firms.
(ii) There are barriers to the entry of firms.
(iii) There is interdependence of firms.
(iv) There is non-price competition.

Q6. Distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics.
Ans.
Study of the behaviour of individual economic agents is the subject matter of microeconomics. The study relating to the economy as a whole is the subject matter of
macroeconomics

Q7. State the meaning and properties of production possibilities
frontier.
Ans.
PPF is the locus of different combinations of the two goods that can be produced with fixed resources, assuming full and efficient utilization of these resources.
Properties:
(1) Slopes downward from left to right.
(2) Concave to the origin.

Q8. Show that demand of a commodity is inversely related to its price.
Explain with the help of utility analysis.
OR
Why is an indifference curve negatively sloped? Explain.
Ans.
  A consumer buys a good up to the point at which
MU=Price
Suppose price falls, then
MU>Price
This induces consumer to buy more of the good. It shows inverse relation between price and
demand of a good.

Q9. Explain the conditions of consumer’s equilibrium under indifference curve approach.
Ans. Let the two goods consumed by the consumer be X and Y. The equilibrium conditions are:
1)  CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
2)  CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce declines as more of X is consumed.

Explanation
(1) Suppose  CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce It means that the consumer is willing to pay more for X than market Price of X. It will induce the consumer to buy more of X. Buying more of X reduces  CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce This process will continue till =  CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

(2) Unless  CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce declines, the consumer will never reach equilibrium again.

Q10. State different phases of the law of variable proportions on the basis of total product. Use diagram.
OR
Explain the geometric method of measuring price elasticity of supply. Use diagram.
Ans. 
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
The three phases of the law of Variable Proportions are:
Phase I: TP increases at increasing rate i.e. upto K on the TP curve
Phase II: TP increases at decreasing rate i.e. from K upto L on the TP curve.
Phase III: TP falls i.e. after L on the TP curve
OR
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
Given supply curve S,to find Es at L.
The steps are:
(1) Extend the supply curve till it intersects the extended X-axis at M.
(2) Draw a perpendicular from L intersecting X-axis at N.
(3) Take the ratio of intercepts on the X axis at M and N.as
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

For blind candidates, in lieu of Q. No. 10.
State different phases of the law of variable proportions with the
help of a schedule.
OR
Explain the distinction between ‘change in supply’ and ‘change in quantity supplied.’
Ans.
For Blind Candidates Only
Statement of the phases
Any relevant schedule
OR
‘Change in supply of a good is defined as that change in supply which is due to factors other than the own price of that good.
“Change in Quantity supplied” of a good is defined as the change in supply which is due to the change in own price of that good.

Q11. Explain the ‘free entry and exit of firms’ feature of monopolistic competition.
Ans. Free entry and exit of firms means that there are no barriers before the firm for entering into the industry and leaving the industry. New firms enter when they find that the
existing firms are earning super normal profits.With their entry, output of the industry increases, which leads to fall in the price of the product. This continues till each firm is
earning only normal profit. The existing firms leave when they face losses. As they leave, output of the industry goes down, raises the price of the product till the losses are wiped out.

Q12. When price of a commodity X falls by 10 per cent, its demand rises from 150 units to 180 units. Calculate its price elasticity of
demand. How much should be the percentage fall in its price so that its demand rises from 150 to 210 units?
Ans. 
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

Q13.Complete the following table:

Output

units

Total

cost

Rs.

Average variable

cost

Rs.

Marginal

cost

Rs.

Average fixed

cost

Rs.

0

30

 

 

 

1

20

2

68

3

84

18

4

18

5

125

19

6

Ans.

Output

TC

AVC

MC

AFC

0

30

-

-

-

1

50

20

20

30

2

68

19

18

15

3

84

18

16

10

4

102

18

18

7.5

5

125

19

23

6

 

Q14. Good Y is a substitute of good X. The price of Y falls. Explain the chain of effects of this change in the market of X.
OR
Explain the chain of effects of excess supply of a good on its equilibrium price.
Ans.
- Good Y is a substitute of good X.
- Price of Y Falls.
- Since X becomes relatively costlier, demand for X decreases.
- This creates excess supply of X at its existing price.
- Excess supply of X creates competition among sellers of X. This lead to fall in price of X.
- Fall in price of X leads to increase in demand for X and decrease in supply.
- The change continues till demand for X equals to supply of X at a lower price of X.
OR

- Excess supply of a good creates competition among the sellers of the good, because the sellers will not be able to sell all they want to sell at the existing price. This leads to fall in price of the good.
- Fall in price leads to rise in demand and fall in supply of the good. - The change continues till demand for the good equals to its supply and the market is in equilibrium again.

Q15. Given below is the cost schedule of a product produced by a firm. The market price per unit of the product at all levels of output is Rs. 12. Using marginal cost and marginal revenue approach, find out the level of equilibrium output. Give reasons for your answer:

Output (Units)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Average Cost (Rs.)

12

11

10

10

10.4

11

Ans.
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
The producer is in equilibrium at 5 units of output, because it fulfills the following two conditions of producer’s equilibrium.
1. MC=MR
2. MC is greater than MR beyond equilibrium.

Section – B

Q16. The ratio of total deposits that a commercial bank has to keep with Reserve Bank of India is called : (choose the correct alternative)
(a) Statutory liquidity ratio
(b) Deposit ratio
(c) Cash reserve ratio
(d) Legal reserve ratio
Ans.
(c) Cash reserve ratio.

Q17. Aggregate demand can be increased by : (choose the correct alternative)
(a) increasing bank rate
(b) selling government securities by Reserve Bank of India
(c) increasing cash reserve ratio
(d) none of the above
Ans.
(d) none of the above

Q18. Give the meaning of involuntary unemployment.
Ans.
It is fiscal deficit net of interest payment.

Q20. Give the meaning of balance of payments.
Ans.
BOP is a record of inflows and outflows of foreign exchange.

Q21. Distinguish between final goods and intermediate goods. Give an example of each.
Ans.
- Goods purchased for consumption and investment are final goods.
- Example: Machinery purchased by a factory
- Good purchased for resale or for using up completely during year are intermediate goods.
- Example: Raw materials purchased by a factory

Q22. Explain the store of value function of money.
OR
State the meaning and components of money supply.
Ans.
Money acts as an asset which can be kept for future use and is available in convenient denominations. This is store of value function of money.
OR
It is the stock of money in the economy at a particular point of time. Components of money
Supply = Currency with public + demand deposits with banks.

Q23. Explain the basis of classifying taxes into direct and indirect tax. Give examples.
Ans.
When the burden of a tax and the liability to pay it falls on the same person,then it is a
direct tax.When burden of tax and liability to pay it fall on different persons,then it is
indirect tax. Example: Direct tax-Income tax etc Indirect tax-Service tax,etc

Q24. Explain ‘banker to the government’ function of the central bank.
OR
Explain the role of reverse repo rate in controlling money supply.
Ans.
Central bank provides the same banking service to the government as commercial banks provide to people. It accepts deposits of government departments and gives them loans in times of need.
OR
‘Reverse repo rate’ is the rate of interest at which the commercial banks park their surplus funds with the central bank. The central bank can control money supply by changing the reverse repo rate(RRR). Rise in RRR encourages commercial banks to park more funds with the central bank. This reduces funds available for lending to general public by the commercial banks

Q25. Explain how government budget can be used to influence distribution of income?
Ans.
Government can impose higher rate of tax on income of the rich and on the goods consumed by the rich.This will bring down disposable income of the rich.The amount so collected can be spent on providing free services,like education, subsidized food to the poor people.eg. This will raise disposable income of the poor reducing the gap between rich and poor.

Q26. An economy is in equilibrium. From the following data about an economy calculate autonomous consumption.
(i) Income = 5000
(ii) Marginal propensity to save = 0.2
(iii) Investment expenditure = 800
Ans.

CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce

Q27. Why does the demand for foreign currency fall and supply rises when its price rises ? Explain.
Ans.
When price of foreign exchange rises, import becomes costlier, demand for imports will fall.As a result demand for foreign currency falls. When price of foreign exchange
rises,domestic goods become cheaper for foreign buyers, because they can now buy more from one unit of foreign currency.As a result demand for exports rise, leading to increase in supply of foreign exchange.

Q28. Explain ‘non-monetary exchanges’ as a limitation of using gross domestic product as an index of welfare of a country.
OR
How will you treat the following while estimating domestic
product of a country ? Give reasons for your answer:
(a) Profits earned by branches of country’s bank in other countries
(b) Gifts given by an employer to his employees on independence day
(c) Purchase of goods by foreign tourists
Ans.
Non monetary exchanges include activities like services of family members provided to each other etc.These activities may be left out from estimate of national income due to the
non-availability of data.But these activities do contribute to welfare of the people.Since GDP may not account for such activities,it may be underestimated.As a result welfare of the people is also underestimated.This is thus a limitation of GDP as an index of welfare
OR
- Not a part of domestic product as it is not generated in the domestic territory of the country.
- Not a part of domestic product as it is a transfer payment.
- Part of domestic product as these are exports produced in the domestic territory

Q29. Calculate (a) net domestic product at factor cost and (b) gross national disposable income:

Rs. in crores

 

(i)

Private final consumption expenditure

8000

(ii)

Government final consumption expenditure

1000

(iii)

Exports

70

(iv)

Imports

120

(v)

Consumption of fixed capital

60

(vi)

Gross domestic fixed capital formation

500

(vii)

Change in stock

100

(viii)

Factor income to abroad

40

(ix)

Factor income from abroad

90

(x)

Indirect taxes

700

(xi)

Subsidies

50

(xii)

Net current transfers to abroad

(-) 30

Ans.
(a) NDPfc = i+ii+(vi++vii)++(iii-iv)-v-x+xi
= 8000 +1000 + 500 + 100 +70 – 120 – 60 – 700 + 50
= Rs 8840 c
(b)GNDI = NDPfc +v+x-xi+ix+viii-xii
= 8840 + 60 + 700 – 50 + 90 – 40 - ( - 30)
= Rs 9630 cr

Q30. Assuming that increase in investment is Rs. 1000 crore and marginal propensity to consume is 0.9, explain the working of multiplier.
Ans.
Given that I=1000 and MPC=0.9,increase in income is in the following sequence:
- Increase in I raises income of those who supply investment goods by Rs 1000.This is first round increase.
- Since MPC=0.9,income earners spend Rs.900 on consumption leading to second round increase of Rs 900 = 1000 X 0.9
- The third round increase in the similar way is Rs 900 x 0.9 = Rs810.
- In this way income goes on increasing round by round, with each round increase in income equal to 90 percent of the previous round.
- The total increase in income is:
CBSE Past Year Paper - 2017 Delhi (Set 1), Class 12 Economics Notes | Study Economics Class 12 - Commerce
= Rs. 10,000 Crore

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