Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

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Calculation of number of particles in a unit cell (Z)

In a crystal atoms located at the corner and face centre of a unit cell are shared by other cells and opnly a portion of such an atom actually lies within a given unit cell.

(i) A point that lies at the corner of a unit cell is share among eight unit cells and therefore, only one eighth of each such point lies within the given unit cell.

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

(ii) A point along an edge is shared by four unit cells and only one-fourth of it lies within any one cell.

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

(iii) A face-centred point is shared by two unit cells and only one half of it is present in a given unit cell.

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

(iv) A body-centred point lies entirely within the unit cell and contributes one complete point to the cell

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Type of Lattice pointContribution to one unit cell
Corner1/8
Edge¼
Face-center½
Body centre1

 

Calculate the number of particles in a unit cell

Type of unit cellLattice points at cornerLattice points at face-centered Lattice points at body centeredZ = no. of lattice points per unit cell
SSC800Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev
BCC801Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev
FCC860Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

Relation between edge length of unit cell and radius of atoms 

(i) Simple cubic or Primitive 

(a) edge length of unit cell a = 2r (b) atomic radius r = a/2

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

(ii) Body centre cubic 

(a) edge length of unit cell = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

(b) atomic radius, r = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

(iii) Face centre cubic/cubic close packed

(a) edge length of unit cell a = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

(b) atomic radius r = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

Illustration: A solid has a cubic structure in which X atoms are located at the corners of the cube, Y atoms are at the cube centres and O atoms are at the edge centres. What is the formula of the compound:

Solution: Atoms of X are present at all the eight corners of the cube. Therefore, each atom of X at the corner makes 1/8 contribution towards the unit cell.
Number of atoms of X per unit cell = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Y atom is present at the body centre, thus contribution of Y towards unit cell = 1 × 1 = 1
O atom is present at each of the edge centre (number of edges of cube = 12)
And each O atom present at edge centre will make ¼ contribution towards the unit cell.

The number of O atoms per unit cell =  Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

The formula of the compound is, therefore XYO3

 

Fraction of volume occupied by atoms in a cube

Packing Fraction = Volume of atoms in the cube/Total volume of cube

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

Density of unit cell

Density of unit cell (and hence density of a crystal)

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Where a is edge of unit cell in pm
NA = Avogadro number (6.02 × 1023)
M = Atomic mass of element or formula mass of the compound
Z = No. Of toms present per unit cell or formula units e.g. for fcc, Z = 4, for bcc, Z = 2, for simple cubic, Z = 1

Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRevCalculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

Illustration: Gold has a close-packed structure which can be viewed as-spheres occupying 0.74 of the total volume. If the density of gold is 19.3 g/cc, calculate the apparent radius of a gold ion in the solid

Solution: Gold has s close-packed structure with a packing fraction value of 0.74. This shows that it has a face-centred cubic cell. The number of ions in a face-centred unit cell is 4.
Now density = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Or 19.3 = Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 

In a face-centred cubic cell.
Radius Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev Calculation Of Number Of Particles In A Unit Cell (Z) - Solid State Chemistry Notes | EduRev

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