Financial Market plays a very important role in development of any country because it is place where liquidity requirement who needs money like industries to meet their expansion plans and those who want to earn better rate of interest on the surplus funds are met .Individuals and financial institution having surplus money come to earn better rate of interest Financial market is a platform where buyers and sellers are involved in sale and purchase of financial products like shares, mutual funds, certificate of deposit ,bonds and so on.
Any industry like reliance ,tatas or government needs money to meet liquidity requirement come to financial market .Financial market act as intermediary between those who need money and who want to invest their money to earn better rate of interest.
Financial market are divided in two types depends on duration for which they need money.
There are two types of financial market :
It is one part of financial market where instruments like securities ,bonds having short term maturities usually less than one year are traded is know as Money market .Organization or Financial institutions having short term money requirement less than one year to meet immediate needs like buying inventories, raw material ,paying loans come to Money Market. It involves lending and borrowing of short term funds. Money market instruments like treasury bills, certificate of deposit and bills of exchange are traded their having maturity less than one year .Investment in money market is safe but it gives low rate of return.
Money Market is regulated by R.B.I in India and instrument having maturity less than one year usually traded in money markets
Major Players in Money Market:-
Money Market Instruments
Treasury Bills are also know as T-Bills. This is one of safest instrument to invest .T-bills are issued by RBI backed by government security. RBI issue treasury bills on the behalf of central government to meet the short term liquidity needs of central government bills are issued at a discount to face value, on maturity face value is paid to holder.
At present, the Government of India issues three types of treasury bills through auctions, for 91-day, 182-day and 364-day. Treasury bills are available for a minimum amount of Rs.25,000 and in multiples of Rs. 25,000.
Treasury bills are also issued under the Market Stabilization Scheme (MSS).In this if RBI want to absorb excess liquidity it can issue T-bills .
2. Commercial Papers (CP)
Commercial papers are issue by private organizations or financial institutions having strong credit rating to meet short term liquidity requirements. These are unsecured instruments as these are not backed by any security. The return on commercial papers is usually higher than T-bills. Different rating agencies ,rate the commercial paper before issue by any organization .If commercial paper carrying good rating means it is safe to invest and carrying lower risk of default .
All corporate are not eligible to issue CP, only who met certain defined criteria by RBI are eligible to issue CP.
CP can be issued for maturities between a minimum of 7 days and a maximum of up to one year from the date of issue and can be issued not less than 5 lakhs and multiples thereafter.
3. Certificate Of Deposit
Certificate of Deposit (CD) is a money market instrument. CDs can be issued by scheduled commercial banks and select All-India Financial Institutions (FIs) that have been permitted by RBI to raise short-term resources. Minimum amount of a CD should be Rs.1 lakh, i.e., the minimum deposit that could be accepted from a single subscriber should not be less than Rs.1 lakh, and in multiples of Rs. 1 lakh thereafter. The maturity period of CDs issued by banks should not be less than 7 days and not more than one year, from the date of issue. CDs may be issued at a discount on face value.
In this a person invest his money in COD and after the end of maturity period he receives money along with interest.
4. Bankers Acceptance
Bankers Acceptance is also a money market instrument to meet short term liquidity requirement .In this company provides bank guarantee to seller to pay amount of good purchased at agreed future date. In case buyer failed to pay on agreed date , seller can invoke bank guarantee. It is usually used to finance export and import.
5. Repurchase Agreement
Repurchase agreement is also know as Repo .It is money market instrument .In this one party sell his asset usually government securities to other party and agreed to buy this asset on future agreed date . The seller pays an interest rate, called the repo rate, when buying back the securities. This is like a short term loan given by buyer of security to seller of security to meet immediate financial needs.
Major Players in Money Market:-
Capital market is also very important part of Indian financial system .This segment of financial market meant to meet long term financial needs usually more than one year or more .Companies like manufacturing , infrastructure power generation and governments which need funds for longer duration period raise money from capital market. Individuals and financial institutions who have surplus fund and want to earn higher rate of interest usually invest in capital market .
S.E.B.I. regulate the capital market in India .It set the transparent mechanism rules and regulations for investors and borrowers .It task is to protect the interest of investors and promote the growth of capital market.
Capital market can be primary market and secondary market . In primary market new securities are issued where as in secondary market already issue securities are traded.
Capital market is divided into two
Capital Market Instruments
Equity market generally know as stock .In this company want to raise money issue shares in share market like B.S.E.or N.S.E.to individual or financial institutions who want to invest their surplus money
Shares can be issued in two ways:
If company issuing share for first time that it is know as I.P.O.(Initial Public Offering). IPO of any company issued in primary market and if company issuing shares for second or third time than it is know as FPO(Follow on Public Offering ) and trading of already issued shares take place in secondary market.
Share gives ownership right to individuals who subscribe to it ,in this way company has to dilute his ownership right Same way public sector undertakings dilute up to 49 percent of their ownership and keep remaining 51 percent with them so that they have majority control.
A person earns from shares is company make profit which is distributed among share holders know as dividend and if company make loss value of share also falls so shares are high risk instruments
Bond or Debt
Bond market is also know as Debt market. A debt instrument is used by government or organization to generate funds for longer duration. The relation between person who invest in debt instrument is of lender and borrower .This gives no ownership right .A person receives fixed rate of interest on debt instrument.
If any company or organization want to raise money for long term purpose without diluting his ownership that it is know as Debentures. These are backed by security so there is no risk involves but return on these instrument is low as compared to shares .Company pay fixed rate of interest on debentures.
If government want to generate funds to meet long term needs like infrastructure it issue bonds know as sovereign bonds which are backed by government security so there is no risk.