Cell - Notes, Biology Notes | EduRev

General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi

UPSC : Cell - Notes, Biology Notes | EduRev

The document Cell - Notes, Biology Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi.
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Cell

Cell - Notes, Biology Notes | EduRev

  • Study which deals with the cell is called cytology.
  • Cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 in sections of cork. He only coined the term ‘Cell’.

Cell Theory states that :

  • All living things are composed of cells and their products.
  • All cells arise from pre – existing Cells.
  • All cells are basically alike in Chemical Composition and Metabolic Activities.
  • The function of an organism as a whole is the outcome of the activities and interaction of the Constituent Cells.

Types of Cells :

  • In a typical cell, the protoplasm consists of nucleus and cytoplasm.
  • Depending on the type of nucleus present, the cells are of two types :
    • Prokaryotic cell (found in blue – green algae, bacteria and Pleuropneumonia like organisms (PPLO).
    • Eukaryotic Cell.
  • On the basis of number of cells, the organisms are classified as Unicellular and Multi – cellular organisms.

Prokaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic Cell

It is simple and primitive in nature.

It is developed and comparatively complex in nature.

The nucleus is not well organized. It has no nuclear membrane and nucleolus.

The nucleus is well organized. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus are present.

The cell has no membrane bound organelles except ribosomal granules.

The cell contains almost all the membrane bound organelles.

Chromosomes are not formed in this cell during cell division.

Chromosomes are formed in the nucleus during cell division.

Single DNA thread remains freely in the nuclear material.

DNA is present in the nuclear reticulum or chromosomes.

 

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

A plant cell has a rigid wall on the outside.

Cell wall is absent.

It is usually larger in size.

An animal cell is comparatively smaller in size

It cannot change its shape

An animal cell can often change its shape

Plastids are found in plant cells.

Plastids are usually absent.

Plant cells exposed to sunlight possess chlorophyll containing plastids called chloroplasts.

Chlorophyll is absent

A mature plant cell contains a large central vacuole.

An animal cell often possesses many small vacuoles.

Nucleus lies on one side in the peripheral cytoplasm.

Nucleus usually lies in the center.

Mitochondria are comparatively fewer.

Mitochondria are generally more numerous.

Cristae are tubular in plant mitochondria.

Cristae are plate - like in animal mitochondria.

Plant cells do not burst if placed in hypotonic solution due to the presence of cell wall.

Animal cells usually burst if placed in hypotonic solution unless and until they possess contractile vacuoles.

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