Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

CAT: Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

The document Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT is a part of the CAT Course Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC).
All you need of CAT at this link: CAT

What is the Voice of a Verb?

  • The voice of a verb expresses whether the subject in the sentence has performed or received the action.
  • Examples: (i) The watchman opens the door.
    (ii) The door is opened by the watchman.

Types of Voices of Verb

Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

Verbs have two voices: 

  1.  Active Voice 
  2. Passive Voice

1. Active Voice 

  • When an action performed by the subject is expressed by the verb, it is an active voice. 
  • Active voice is used when more straightforward relation and clarity is required between the subject and the verb.
  • Examples: (i) Hens lay eggs.
    (ii) Birds build nests.

2. Passive Voice

  • When the action expressed by the verb is received by the subject, it is passive voice. 
  • Passive voice is used when the doer of the action is not known and the focus of the sentence is on the action and not the subject.
  • Examples: (i) Eggs are laid by hens.
    (ii) Nests are built by birds.


Rules for Active-Passive Voice Conversions

Below are the active-passive voice rules to follow for changing an active sentence into a passive voice. Before heading to the rules of active-passive voice, let’s check the examples of active and passive voice sentences.

Example 1:

Active: Rita wrote a letter. (Subject + Verb + Object)
Passive: A letter was written by Rita.  (Object) + (auxiliary verb) + (past participle) + (by subject).

Example 2:

Active: She cooks food. (Subject + Verb + Object)

Passive: The food is cooked by her. (Object) + (auxiliary verb) + (past participle) + (by subject)

Try yourself:Convert the following sentence in active voice to passive voice:
He is writing the book.
View Solution

Rules for Active-Passive voice conversions are:

Rule 1: Identify the (S+V+O) Subject, Verb and object in the active sentence to convert to passive voice 
Example: He drives a car. (Subject – He, verb – Drives, object – Car)

Rule 2: Interchange the object and subject with each other, i.e. object of the active sentence become the subject of the passive sentence.
Example: Active Voice: She knits a sweater. (Subject – She, Verb – Knits, Object – Sweater)
Passive Voice: A sweater is knitted by her. (Object sweater is interchanged with the subject She).

Rule 3: In passive voice sometimes the subject is not used, i.e. the subject in passive voice can be omitted if the sentence without it gives enough meaning.
Example: Milk is sold in litres.


Rule 4: Change the base verb in the active sentence into the past participle ie. third form verb in a passive sentence i.e. preceded by (By, With, to, etc). Base verbs are never used in passive voice sentences.
Example: (i) Active Voice: She prepares dinner.
Passive Voice: The dinner is prepared by her.
(ii) Active voice: She knows him.
Passive voice: He is known to her.
(iii) Active voice: Juice fills the jar.
Passive voice: The jar is filled with juice.


Rule 5: While conversion of Active voice sentence to Passive voice sentence, the pronoun used in the sentence also changes in the following manner.

Active Voice Pronoun

Passive Voice Pronoun

I

Me

We

Us

He

Him

She

Her

They

Them

You

You

It

It

Rule 6: Use the suitable helping or auxiliary verb (is/am/are/was, etc.). The rules for using auxiliary verbs in passive voice sentences are different for each tense.

Examples: (i) The letter is written by her
(ii) A book was not bought by her
(iii) Chocolates are being eaten by them.

Try yourself:Rahul will pass the message.
View Solution


Forms of Active And Passive Voice For All Tenses

1. Simple Present Tense 

Active Sentences

Passive Sentences

He writes an essay

An essay is written by him

Sheena does the housework

The housework is done by Sheena

She cares for the rabbit

The rabbit is being cared for by her

Jacob always plays the guitar 

The guitar is always played by Jacob

2. Present Continuous Tense

Active Sentences

Passive Sentences

They are eating bananas

The bananas are being eaten by them

Bob is drawing a diagram

A diagram is being drawn by Bob

Samta is playing the piano

A piano is being played by Samta

She is waiting for Reema

Reema is being waited for by her

3. Present Perfect Tense 

Active Sentences

Passive Sentences

Has he done the work?

Has the work been done by him?

Have they left the apartment?

Has the apartment been left by them?

He created this masterpiece

This masterpiece is created by him

He read the newspaper

The newspaper is being read by him

Note- [except certain exemptions, no passive Voice formation for the following tenses can be formed, Present Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense, Future Perfect Continuous Tense and Future Continuous Tense]

4. Simple Past Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Ria paid the bills

The bills were paid by Ria

The teacher called the student

The student was called by the teacher

She did not buy the fruits

The fruits were not bought by her

5. Past Progressive/Continuous Tense

Active Voice 

Passive Voice

They were waiting for him

He was being waited for by them

Astha was learning French

French was being learnt by Astha

She was playing kabaddi

Kabaddi was being played by her

6. Past Perfect Tense

Active Voice 

Passive Voice

She won the match

The match had been won by her

I had finished her work

Her work had been finished by me

He had missed the last metro

The last metro had been missed by him

7. Simple Future Tense 

Active Voice 

Passive Voice

He will write a letter

A letter will be written by him

He will repair her cycle

Her cycle will be repaired by him

He shall start the meeting

The meeting will be started by him

8. Future Perfect Tense

Active Voice 

Passive Voice

Meena will not have changed the bedsheet

The bed sheet will not have been changed by Meena

They will have won the match

The match will have been won by them

Reena will have washed the skirt

The skirt will have been washed by Reena

➢ Imperative Sentence

If the given sentence in the active voice is imperative, to get the passive voice use ‘Let’. Hence Passive Voice = Let + Object + be + Past Participle

Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT


➢ Question Sentences

If the question in the Active Voice begins with a Helping verb the Passive voice must also begin with a suitable helping verb. Supposing the question begins with ‘Wh or How’ form (what, when, how ...) the Passive Voice must begin with the same.

Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT


Synopsis

Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

The document Rules & Examples: Change of Voice Notes | Study Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT is a part of the CAT Course Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC).
All you need of CAT at this link: CAT

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