Fundamental nature of manufacturing processes
Manufacturing process can be termed as positive, negative and or zero processes.
Casting & Forming - Zero process
Machining - Negative process
Joining (welding) - positive process
This grouping is based on the way bulk materials processed for final product.
A wide range of manufacturing processes have been developed in order to produce the engineering component of:
Different Geometries: Simple to Complex.
Using materials of different:
Selection of manufacturing process is decided by:
Casting and forming involve mainly shaping of metal in controlled way with the help cavity or die.
Machining is considered as a Negative process because unwanted material is removed from the stock in the form of small chips to get the desired size and shape.
Example: All machining Operation and Surface finishing operation.
It is used for assembling different members to get the desired shape.
Example: All welding Processes, soldering, Brazing etc.
Provided to make clearance between pattern and mould walls. Depends on the skill of operator and it is negative in nature.
Note: Shrinkage allowances for important material
Material Allowance Bismuth Negligible Cast iron 10 mm/metre length Aluminium 12-15 mm/metre length Bronze 15 mm / metre length Pure aluminium 17 mm/ metre length Grey C.I. Negative allowance Liquid shrinkage > solid shrinkage > phase transformation shrinkage
It is used for making hollow cavities in casting
A small cup shaped cavity at top of the mould into which the molten metal is poured.
The passage through which the molten metal from the pouring basing reaches the runner or the mould cavity.
The passage ways in the parting plane through which molten metal flow is regulated before It reaches the mould cavity.
The actual entry point through which molten metal enters the mould cavity.
A Chaplet are used to support cores inside the mould cavity to take care of its own weight and overcome the metastatic forces.
Chills are metallic object, which are placed in the mould to increase the cooling rate of casting to provide uniform or desired cooling rate.
It is a reservoir of molten metal in the casting so that hot metal can flow back into the mould cavity when there is a reduction in volume of metal due to Shrinkage .
Continuity: The law of mass continuity states that for the incompressible liquids and in a system with impermeable walls, the rate of flow is constant. Thus
Q = A1V1 = A2V2
Q = Rate of flow m2/s
A = Cross -sectional area of the liquid system
V = Average velocity of the liquid system
According to this law, the flow rate must be maintained any where in the system.
The permeability of the wall of the system is important because otherwise some liquid will permeate through the wall (such as in sand molds) and the flow rate will decrease as the liquid moves through the system.
Assuming that the pressure at the top of the sprue is equal to the pressure at the bottom and that there is no frictional losses, the relationship between the height and cross-sectional area at any point in the shape is given by the parabolic relationship
where the subscript 1 denotes the top of the sprue and 2 denotes the bottom moving downward from the top, the cross sectional area of the sprue must decreases. Depending on the assumptions made, above equation can also be obtained.
TYPES OF PATTERNS
Patterns are used to mold the sand mixture into the shape of the casting. This may be made of wood, plastic or metal. The selection of a patterns depends on the size and shape of the casting, the dimensional accuracy, the quantity of casting required and the molding process.
The cope and drag portions of the pattern are mounted on the opposite side of wood or metal plate contouring to the parting line. It is used for production of small size precision casting in mass production. Eg. Piston ring.
• 3 dimensional skeleton is developed using small wooden work piece to get desired shape and this skeleton is covered with wine mesh.
• It is used to prepare shells and drums.
Properties of Moulding Sand
The traditional method of casting metals is in sand moulds and had been used for millennia. Simply stated, sand casting consists of
(a) placing a pattern (having the shape of the desired casting) in sand to make an imprint
(b) incorporating a gating systems
(c) filling the resulting cavity with molten metal
(d) allowing the metal to cool until it solidifies
(e) Breaking the sand mould
(f) removing the casting.
The production steps for a typical sand casting operation are shown below :
• It is the ability of moulding sand to withstand the high temperature of molten metals.
• It should be high.
• The moulding sand that contain moisture 2% to 8% is termed as green sand.
• The green sand should have enough strength so that the mould cavity retain its shape.
• When molten metal poured into a mould, the sand around the mould cavity is
quickly converted in dry sand as the moisture in the sand immediately evaporates due to heat in the molten metal.
• At this stage it should retain the mould cavity and at the same time withstand the metastatic forces.
It is the strength of the sand that is required to hold the shape of the mould cavity after all the moisture is eliminated and temperature is further increasing.
The gas evolving capability of moulding sand is known as permeability. This will be expressed by permeability number.
V = volume of air passing through the specimen
H = Height of standard specimen
P = Pressure of the air passing through the specimen
A = Area of cross section of cylinder.
T = Time required to pass through specimen
By adding water upto 8%, the permeability value will be increase and beyond 8% if H2O is increased its permeability will start decreasing.
Grain Fineness Number (GFN)
• GFN will indicate the average grain size distribution in a given moulding sand.
• Greater the grain fineness number more fine the grain size.
• GFN can be determine by conducting sieve shaker test.
• The ability of sand to flow due to ramming force to fire the mould flask area is known as flowability.
• Ability of the moulding sand due to which it offer any resistance against the contraction of casting material is called collapsibility.
• During the solid contraction of the casting part if the mould creates resistance cracks will appear over the casting
• Saw dust or wood powder is added to improve collapsibility.
• Since when molten metal poured wood powder burns to ash due to heat and hence shrinks in size causing the mould near casting to easily collapse and provide resistance less shrinkage.
• The bond formation between two different material between mould sand and pattern.
• The bond formation between two similar material i.e between 2 sand grains is known as cohesiveness.
• Ability to resist impact and shock loads by the moulding sands
• Resistance to stracking, to withstand the force supply by molten liquid metal on the moulds wall is called toughness.
• To get dimensional stability of the casting uniform hardness is require. This can be achieve by uniform ramming.
• Shatter index test is done for toughness testing shocker observed when molten metal is poured.
Universal testing machine : Used for testing green strength
Sand Muller : Used for mixing and preparing moulding sand.
Cup Test : Used for testing formability.
Charpy Test : Used for testing toughness.
Knoop Test : Used for testing microhardness of the material.
Example: 2000 C.C of air is passing through a standard cylinder specimen for 1.5 min. The manometer indicates pressure as 5 gm/cm2, what is the permeability number?
Given, V=2000 c.c; H = 5.08; T = 105 min; P = 5 gm/cm2
Type of sand
1. Green sand
2. Dry Sand
3. Facing Sand
4. Loan Sand
5. Baking Sand
6. Parting Sand
If the sand contains 2.6% of moisture than the sand is called green sand.
The moisture available in the moulding sand evaporates cause of high temperature of molten then the sand is called dry sand.
The sand which is used near the mould cavity with more clay and fine silica sand is called facing sand.
It is a pure silica sand use to avoid Shrinking of the moulding surfaces with other surfaces.
Sand which is place at the extreme end of the mould to support the facing sand is known as backing sand. Already used sand can be used as a baking sand.
Additives Used In Moulding Sand
Composition of mouldingSand
Silica sand 70.85%
Types of Moulding Method
1. Bench moulding
2. Floor moulding
3. Pit moulding
4. Machining Moulding
If moulding is taking place on a bench or a platform that is called bench moulding.
It is used to produce small size moulds only.
If moulding is taking place on the floor, it is known as floor moulding. It is used to
produce medium size moulds.
Mould is prepare inside a pit. It is use to produce large size mould. The moulding sand which is available in the pit is acts as drag box.
• It is refers to all the elements which are used to push the liquid metal into the cavity.
• Initially the liquid metal is poured into a pouring basin to settle the turbulence of liquid metal and almost with laminar flow liquid enters into sprue.
• Compensation for vena contractor is provided at a place where liquid metal just enters into the horizontal runner.
• Otherwise vacuum will be formed in the gating system and atmosphere gases will be dissolved in the liquid metal i.e. air aspiration takes place.
• Skim bob is placed in the horizontal runner just before liquid metals enters into mould cavity.
• So that heavier impurities settles down and lighter impurities float over it and
almost pure metal enters the mould cavity.
• The cross section of horizontal runner increases in the forward direction because to maintain uniform pressure (atmospheric) in the gating system.
Type of Gating
1. Top gating
2. Bottom gating
3. Horizontal gating.
Objectives of Gating System
• Gating system helps the molten metal to enter the mould cavity without increasing the velocity and turbulence of the molten molten metal within specified time.
• Molten metal has to enter into the mould cavity without eroding gating elements and mould cavity.
• Molten metal has to enter into the mould cavity with full of molten metal through all the gating elements in orders to avoid air aspiration effect.
• We need to design the gating elements such that casting yield is maximum.
• The molten metal has to enter in the mould cavity without any slag particles and impurities.
Parting Line Gate
If the gate will be provided along the parting line it is called parting line gate with the help of this gate cavity below the parting line can be filled by assuming top gate and cavity above the parting line can be filled assuming bottom gate.
To get the advantage to both top gate and bottom gate parting line gate will be used most commonly.
Unpressurised Gating System
• Velocity of liquid metal entering into mould cavity will be high as compare to initial velocity.
• No possibility of turbulence, splashing and mould erosion is present.
• Generally it is used to produce non ferrous material for casting process.
• There is a possibility of air aspiration effect in the runner and sprue base wall.
Pressurised Gating System
• Liquid metal will enter into the mould cavity with maximum velocity.
• There is possibility of turbulence, splashing and mould erosion during casting process.
• There is no possibility of air aspiration effect during casting process.
• It is used to produce casting made up of ferrous material example, iron, cobalt.
• Casting yield will be more.