Chapter 1 Crop production Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Science - Short Notes for Class 8th

Created by: Sushil Solanki

Class 8 : Chapter 1 Crop production Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Ploughshaft 
Ploughshare 
Chapter – 1 
Crop Production and Management 
 
Crop – Same kind of plant grown and cultivated over a large surface area. E.g. Rice grown over a large area. 
Types of Crops: 
Kharif Crops – sown during June and harvested during September i.e. during the raining season because they 
require a lot of water. E.g. Gram, Pea, Mustard, Wheat etc. 
Rabi Crops – sown during October and harvested during March i.e. during the winter season. E.g. Paddy, 
Maize, Groundnuts etc. 
Agricultural Practices – Activities done by farmers during cultivation. Following activities ae called 
agricultural practices: 
1. Preparation of Soil 
2. Sowing  
3. Adding manures and fertilizers 
4. Irrigation 
5. Weeding 
6. Harvesting 
7. Storage 
1. Preparation of soil 
The soil can be loosened by ploughing or tilling by using ploughs that are made up of iron or wood. 
Loosening of soil helps, the roots to penetrate and respire (breathe). It also helps in the growth of 
microorganisms and earthworms, which provide nutrition to the plants. 
 
A plough is made of wood with an iron strip called ploughshare at the bottom and is drawn by a pair of 
bulls. It is used for tilling the soil, removing weeds, adding fertilizers etc.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig.1 Plough 
 
 
 
 
 
Page 2


Ploughshaft 
Ploughshare 
Chapter – 1 
Crop Production and Management 
 
Crop – Same kind of plant grown and cultivated over a large surface area. E.g. Rice grown over a large area. 
Types of Crops: 
Kharif Crops – sown during June and harvested during September i.e. during the raining season because they 
require a lot of water. E.g. Gram, Pea, Mustard, Wheat etc. 
Rabi Crops – sown during October and harvested during March i.e. during the winter season. E.g. Paddy, 
Maize, Groundnuts etc. 
Agricultural Practices – Activities done by farmers during cultivation. Following activities ae called 
agricultural practices: 
1. Preparation of Soil 
2. Sowing  
3. Adding manures and fertilizers 
4. Irrigation 
5. Weeding 
6. Harvesting 
7. Storage 
1. Preparation of soil 
The soil can be loosened by ploughing or tilling by using ploughs that are made up of iron or wood. 
Loosening of soil helps, the roots to penetrate and respire (breathe). It also helps in the growth of 
microorganisms and earthworms, which provide nutrition to the plants. 
 
A plough is made of wood with an iron strip called ploughshare at the bottom and is drawn by a pair of 
bulls. It is used for tilling the soil, removing weeds, adding fertilizers etc.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig.1 Plough 
 
 
 
 
 
Handle 
Iron Plate 
Iron Blades 
 
 
 
A Hoe is used to remove weeds (the process of removing weeds is called weeding) and loosen the soil. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                          Fig.2  Hoe 
 
Cultivators are Modern day tilling machines pulled by a tractor. It contain several hard iron blades that can 
plough a larger area thus reducing labor and time. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig.3 Cultivators 
2. Sowing 
Sowing is the method of burying the seeds in the soil.  Good quality seeds are used for sowing. 
Damaged seeds are hollow and lighter, so floats on the water and can be separated from the good seeds. 
Traditional method of sowing include a funnel and modern methods uses a seed drill that can bury seeds 
at even distance and depths. 
 
 
 
 
 
                 Fig.4 Traditional Seed Drill                                                     Fig.5 Modern seed Drill 
 
Page 3


Ploughshaft 
Ploughshare 
Chapter – 1 
Crop Production and Management 
 
Crop – Same kind of plant grown and cultivated over a large surface area. E.g. Rice grown over a large area. 
Types of Crops: 
Kharif Crops – sown during June and harvested during September i.e. during the raining season because they 
require a lot of water. E.g. Gram, Pea, Mustard, Wheat etc. 
Rabi Crops – sown during October and harvested during March i.e. during the winter season. E.g. Paddy, 
Maize, Groundnuts etc. 
Agricultural Practices – Activities done by farmers during cultivation. Following activities ae called 
agricultural practices: 
1. Preparation of Soil 
2. Sowing  
3. Adding manures and fertilizers 
4. Irrigation 
5. Weeding 
6. Harvesting 
7. Storage 
1. Preparation of soil 
The soil can be loosened by ploughing or tilling by using ploughs that are made up of iron or wood. 
Loosening of soil helps, the roots to penetrate and respire (breathe). It also helps in the growth of 
microorganisms and earthworms, which provide nutrition to the plants. 
 
A plough is made of wood with an iron strip called ploughshare at the bottom and is drawn by a pair of 
bulls. It is used for tilling the soil, removing weeds, adding fertilizers etc.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig.1 Plough 
 
 
 
 
 
Handle 
Iron Plate 
Iron Blades 
 
 
 
A Hoe is used to remove weeds (the process of removing weeds is called weeding) and loosen the soil. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                          Fig.2  Hoe 
 
Cultivators are Modern day tilling machines pulled by a tractor. It contain several hard iron blades that can 
plough a larger area thus reducing labor and time. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig.3 Cultivators 
2. Sowing 
Sowing is the method of burying the seeds in the soil.  Good quality seeds are used for sowing. 
Damaged seeds are hollow and lighter, so floats on the water and can be separated from the good seeds. 
Traditional method of sowing include a funnel and modern methods uses a seed drill that can bury seeds 
at even distance and depths. 
 
 
 
 
 
                 Fig.4 Traditional Seed Drill                                                     Fig.5 Modern seed Drill 
 
3. Adding manures and fertilizers 
  
Manure and fertilizers contain nutrients essential for plant growth.  
 
Manure Fertilizers 
Obtained from natural sources such as animal and 
plant waste 
Synthesized from chemicals 
Can be produced in homes or farms Produced in factories 
Contain all the nutrients Contain specific nutrients 
No side effects Can degrade soil over a period of time 
Low nutrients as compare to fertilizers High nutrient content 
E.g. Animal and plant waste E.g. Urea, NPK fertilizers 
 
Advantages of Manure 
?  It increases the water holding capacity of soil 
? It makes the soil porous for exchange of gases 
? It increases the growth of useful microorganisms 
 
4. Irrigation 
 
Watering the plants at different time intervals during cultivation is called irrigation. 
Traditional methods of irrigation 
a) Moat (pulley system) 
b) Chain pump 
c) Dhekli 
d) Rahat (Lever system) 
Modern Methods of Irrigation 
a) Sprinkler – Perpendicular pipes with a rotating nozzle are attached to a horizontal main pipeline. It is 
used on uneven surfaces and in water scarce regions 
b) Drip irrigation – Plants are watered at the roots drop by drop. It is used for watering fruit plants, gardens 
and trees. 
 
5. Weeding 
 
Undesirable plants growing along with the crop plant are called weeds. Weeds compete with the crop 
plant for space, nutrient and light. The removal of weeds is called weeding. Chemicals that are used to 
kill weeds are called weedicides. Weeds can also be removed manually using k hur pi or a seed drill. 
 
6. Harvesting 
 
The cutting of crop after it matures is called harvesting. Crops are cut manually using sickle or by 
harvester. After the crop has been harvested seeds are separated from the chaff by a process called 
threshing. 
Winnowing – It is the process of separating grain from the chaff using wind. 
Page 4


Ploughshaft 
Ploughshare 
Chapter – 1 
Crop Production and Management 
 
Crop – Same kind of plant grown and cultivated over a large surface area. E.g. Rice grown over a large area. 
Types of Crops: 
Kharif Crops – sown during June and harvested during September i.e. during the raining season because they 
require a lot of water. E.g. Gram, Pea, Mustard, Wheat etc. 
Rabi Crops – sown during October and harvested during March i.e. during the winter season. E.g. Paddy, 
Maize, Groundnuts etc. 
Agricultural Practices – Activities done by farmers during cultivation. Following activities ae called 
agricultural practices: 
1. Preparation of Soil 
2. Sowing  
3. Adding manures and fertilizers 
4. Irrigation 
5. Weeding 
6. Harvesting 
7. Storage 
1. Preparation of soil 
The soil can be loosened by ploughing or tilling by using ploughs that are made up of iron or wood. 
Loosening of soil helps, the roots to penetrate and respire (breathe). It also helps in the growth of 
microorganisms and earthworms, which provide nutrition to the plants. 
 
A plough is made of wood with an iron strip called ploughshare at the bottom and is drawn by a pair of 
bulls. It is used for tilling the soil, removing weeds, adding fertilizers etc.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig.1 Plough 
 
 
 
 
 
Handle 
Iron Plate 
Iron Blades 
 
 
 
A Hoe is used to remove weeds (the process of removing weeds is called weeding) and loosen the soil. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                          Fig.2  Hoe 
 
Cultivators are Modern day tilling machines pulled by a tractor. It contain several hard iron blades that can 
plough a larger area thus reducing labor and time. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig.3 Cultivators 
2. Sowing 
Sowing is the method of burying the seeds in the soil.  Good quality seeds are used for sowing. 
Damaged seeds are hollow and lighter, so floats on the water and can be separated from the good seeds. 
Traditional method of sowing include a funnel and modern methods uses a seed drill that can bury seeds 
at even distance and depths. 
 
 
 
 
 
                 Fig.4 Traditional Seed Drill                                                     Fig.5 Modern seed Drill 
 
3. Adding manures and fertilizers 
  
Manure and fertilizers contain nutrients essential for plant growth.  
 
Manure Fertilizers 
Obtained from natural sources such as animal and 
plant waste 
Synthesized from chemicals 
Can be produced in homes or farms Produced in factories 
Contain all the nutrients Contain specific nutrients 
No side effects Can degrade soil over a period of time 
Low nutrients as compare to fertilizers High nutrient content 
E.g. Animal and plant waste E.g. Urea, NPK fertilizers 
 
Advantages of Manure 
?  It increases the water holding capacity of soil 
? It makes the soil porous for exchange of gases 
? It increases the growth of useful microorganisms 
 
4. Irrigation 
 
Watering the plants at different time intervals during cultivation is called irrigation. 
Traditional methods of irrigation 
a) Moat (pulley system) 
b) Chain pump 
c) Dhekli 
d) Rahat (Lever system) 
Modern Methods of Irrigation 
a) Sprinkler – Perpendicular pipes with a rotating nozzle are attached to a horizontal main pipeline. It is 
used on uneven surfaces and in water scarce regions 
b) Drip irrigation – Plants are watered at the roots drop by drop. It is used for watering fruit plants, gardens 
and trees. 
 
5. Weeding 
 
Undesirable plants growing along with the crop plant are called weeds. Weeds compete with the crop 
plant for space, nutrient and light. The removal of weeds is called weeding. Chemicals that are used to 
kill weeds are called weedicides. Weeds can also be removed manually using k hur pi or a seed drill. 
 
6. Harvesting 
 
The cutting of crop after it matures is called harvesting. Crops are cut manually using sickle or by 
harvester. After the crop has been harvested seeds are separated from the chaff by a process called 
threshing. 
Winnowing – It is the process of separating grain from the chaff using wind. 
7. Storage 
 
Storing the grains away from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. Grains are dried in the sun 
before storage to prevent germination and spoilage. Grains are stored in silos and granaries. Some crops 
such as potato and tomatoes are stored in cold storages. 
 
 
Animal Husbandry 
Rearing and caring of animals for their products such as eggs, meat, wool etc. is called animal 
husbandry. 
 
 
 
 
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