Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems - Notes, illustration, Engg , Sem Notes | EduRev

: Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems - Notes, illustration, Engg , Sem Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Illustrations
In this chapter we describe a general process for designing a control system. 
A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a 
desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to 
examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early 
systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today.
Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for 
improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced 
automobile control, including rapid transit, among others. 
We also discuss the notion of a design gap. The gap exists between the complex 
physical system under investigation and the model used in the control system 
synthesis. 
The iterative nature of design allows us to handle the design gap effectively while 
accomplishing necessary tradeoffs in complexity, performance, and cost in order to 
meet the design specifications. 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems 
Objectives
Page 2


Illustrations
In this chapter we describe a general process for designing a control system. 
A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a 
desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to 
examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early 
systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today.
Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for 
improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced 
automobile control, including rapid transit, among others. 
We also discuss the notion of a design gap. The gap exists between the complex 
physical system under investigation and the model used in the control system 
synthesis. 
The iterative nature of design allows us to handle the design gap effectively while 
accomplishing necessary tradeoffs in complexity, performance, and cost in order to 
meet the design specifications. 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems 
Objectives
Illustrations
Introduction
System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.
Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system 
configuration that will provide a desired response.
Process – The device, plant, or system 
under control.  The input and output 
relationship represents the cause-and-
effect relationship of the process.
Page 3


Illustrations
In this chapter we describe a general process for designing a control system. 
A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a 
desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to 
examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early 
systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today.
Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for 
improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced 
automobile control, including rapid transit, among others. 
We also discuss the notion of a design gap. The gap exists between the complex 
physical system under investigation and the model used in the control system 
synthesis. 
The iterative nature of design allows us to handle the design gap effectively while 
accomplishing necessary tradeoffs in complexity, performance, and cost in order to 
meet the design specifications. 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems 
Objectives
Illustrations
Introduction
System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.
Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system 
configuration that will provide a desired response.
Process – The device, plant, or system 
under control.  The input and output 
relationship represents the cause-and-
effect relationship of the process.
Illustrations
Introduction
Multivariable Control System
Open-Loop Control Systems
utilize a controller or control 
actuator to obtain the desired 
response.
Closed-Loop Control 
Systems utilizes feedback to 
compare the actual output to 
the desired output response.
Page 4


Illustrations
In this chapter we describe a general process for designing a control system. 
A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a 
desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to 
examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early 
systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today.
Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for 
improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced 
automobile control, including rapid transit, among others. 
We also discuss the notion of a design gap. The gap exists between the complex 
physical system under investigation and the model used in the control system 
synthesis. 
The iterative nature of design allows us to handle the design gap effectively while 
accomplishing necessary tradeoffs in complexity, performance, and cost in order to 
meet the design specifications. 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems 
Objectives
Illustrations
Introduction
System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.
Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system 
configuration that will provide a desired response.
Process – The device, plant, or system 
under control.  The input and output 
relationship represents the cause-and-
effect relationship of the process.
Illustrations
Introduction
Multivariable Control System
Open-Loop Control Systems
utilize a controller or control 
actuator to obtain the desired 
response.
Closed-Loop Control 
Systems utilizes feedback to 
compare the actual output to 
the desired output response.
Illustrations
History
Watt’s Flyball Governor
(18
th
century)
Greece (BC) – Float regulator mechanism
Holland (16
th
Century)– Temperature regulator
Page 5


Illustrations
In this chapter we describe a general process for designing a control system. 
A control system consisting of interconnected components is designed to achieve a 
desired purpose. To understand the purpose of a control system, it is useful to 
examine examples of control systems through the course of history. These early 
systems incorporated many of the same ideas of feedback that are in use today.
Modern control engineering practice includes the use of control design strategies for 
improving manufacturing processes, the efficiency of energy use, advanced 
automobile control, including rapid transit, among others. 
We also discuss the notion of a design gap. The gap exists between the complex 
physical system under investigation and the model used in the control system 
synthesis. 
The iterative nature of design allows us to handle the design gap effectively while 
accomplishing necessary tradeoffs in complexity, performance, and cost in order to 
meet the design specifications. 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Control Systems 
Objectives
Illustrations
Introduction
System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.
Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system 
configuration that will provide a desired response.
Process – The device, plant, or system 
under control.  The input and output 
relationship represents the cause-and-
effect relationship of the process.
Illustrations
Introduction
Multivariable Control System
Open-Loop Control Systems
utilize a controller or control 
actuator to obtain the desired 
response.
Closed-Loop Control 
Systems utilizes feedback to 
compare the actual output to 
the desired output response.
Illustrations
History
Watt’s Flyball Governor
(18
th
century)
Greece (BC) – Float regulator mechanism
Holland (16
th
Century)– Temperature regulator
Illustrations
History
Water-level float regulator
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