Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

Electrical Engineering (EE): Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

The document Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE) is a part of the Electrical Engineering (EE) Course Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical).
All you need of Electrical Engineering (EE) at this link: Electrical Engineering (EE)

MicroWave Basic And Transmission Lines

  • Microwaves are electromagnetic waves of which frequency ranges from 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. 
  • Microwaves behave more like rays of light than ordinary radio waves. 
  • Microwave frequency cannot be used for ground wave communication.

Advantages of Microwaves: 

1. Increased bandwidth availability
2. Improved directive properties
3. Low fading effect and low power requirements

IEEE bandsFor microwave
L1.1 – 1.7 GHz
Ls1.7 – 2.6 GHz
S2.6 – 3.9 GHz
C3.9 – 8 GHz
X8 – 12.5 GHz
Ku12.5 – 18 GHz
K18 – 26 GHz
Ka26 – 40 GHz

Multi-conductor lines:

Coaxial cable: It is used upto 3GHz and it behaves like a LPF. 

  • Coaxial cables supportd TEM wave and has no cut off frequency. 
  • There is high radiation loss in coaxial cable at high frequencies.

Coaxial cable resistance:

Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

d® Skin depth s c® Conductivity a® Inner conductor radius b ® Outer conductor radius

Inductance: 
Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

Capacitance: 
Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

Propagation characteristics and applications of various bands:
BandFrequencyWavelengthPropagation CharacteristicsApplication
ELF30–300 Hz10 – 1 MmPenetration into earth and sea.Communication with submarines.
VLF3 – 30 kHz 100 – 10 kmSurface wave up to 1000 km.
Sky wave in the night extends range. Low attenuation during
day and night.
Long distance point to
point communication
Sonar navigation.
LF30 – 300 kHz10-11kmSurface wave and sky wave at night. Surface wave attenuation greater than VHF.
 
Point-to- Point marine communication, Time standard frequency broadcast.
MF300 – 3000 kHz1000 – 100mGround wave in day and sky wave in night. Attenuation is high in day and low in night.AM broadcasting direction finding, coastguard and marine communication.
HF3 – 30 MHz100 – 10 mReflection from ionosphere.Moderate and long distance communication of all types: telephone, telegraph, radio.
VHF300–3000 MHz100 – 10 cmSame as VHF, affected by tall objectes like hills.Short distance communication including radar, T.V, satellite com munication .

 

Characteristic Impedance:

Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

Breakdown power in coaxial cable:

Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

  • These are modifications of coaxial lines and used at frequency from 100 MHz to 100 GHz. 
  • The dominant mode is TEM mode and has no radiation losses. 
  • These have higher isolation between adjacent circuits and no fringing fields after a certain distance from the edges of a conductor. 
  • It is difficult to mount active components on strip lines (i.e. line diode, circulators).

Characteristic Impedance :

Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE)

d ® Diameter of circular conductor
b ® Thickness between ground plates

Micro strip lines: 

  • Cost is lower than strip line, coaxial cable or waveguide 
  • Open structure of microstrip line leads to greater coupling and it is large to mount passive or active compnents. 
  • Op
The document Microwave Basic & Transmission Lines Notes | Study Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical) - Electrical Engineering (EE) is a part of the Electrical Engineering (EE) Course Basic Electronics Engineering for SSC JE (Technical).
All you need of Electrical Engineering (EE) at this link: Electrical Engineering (EE)

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