Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Chemistry Class 12

Class 12 : Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

The document Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 12 Course Chemistry Class 12.
All you need of Class 12 at this link: Class 12

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Estimation of closest distance of approach (derivation) of α-particle : Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

The radius of a nucleus : R = R0 (A)1/3 cm

Planck's Quantum Theory : Energy of one photon = hv = (hc/λ)

Photoelectric Effect: Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Bohr’s Model for Hydrogen like atoms :

  1. mvr = n(h/2π) (Quantization of angular momentum) 
  2. Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  3. Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  4. Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

De-Broglie wavelength :

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Wavelength of emitted photon :

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

No. of photons emitted by a sample of H atom :

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Or

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Or

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Quantum Numbers:

  • Principal quantum number (n) = 1,2, 3, 4 .... to∞.
  • Orbital angular momentum of electron in any orbit = nh/2π.
  • Azimuthal quantum number (l) = 0 , 1 .... to (n - 1).
  • Number of orbitals in a subshell = 2l + 1
  • Maximum number of electrons in particular subshell = 2x (2l+ 1)
  • Orbital angular momentum L = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev


STOICHIOMETRY

  • Relative atomic mass (R.A.M)= Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev Total Number of nucleons
  • Y-map

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Density:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

For gases:

Absolute density (mass/volume) = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Vapour density Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Mgas = 2 V.D.

Mole-mole analysis:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Concentration terms:

Molarity (M):

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Molality (m):

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Mole fraction (x):

∴ Mole fraction of solution (x1) =Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev ∴ Mole fraction of solvent (x2) = 

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

% Calculation:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Derive the following conversion :

  1. Mole fraction of solute into molarity of solution M =Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  2. Molarity into mole fraction x2 = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  3. Mole fraction into molality m = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  4. Molality into mole fraction x2 = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  5. Molality into molarity M = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev
  6. Molarity into Molality m = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

M1 and M2 are molar masses of solvent and solute, ρ is density of solution (gm/mL) 

M = Molarity (mole/lit.), m = Molality (mole/kg), x1 = Mole fraction of solvent, x2 = Mole fraction of solute

Average/Mean atomic mass :

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Mean molar mass or molecular mass:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Calculation of individual oxidation number :

Formula: Oxidation Number = number of electrons in the valence shell - number of electrons left after bonding

Concept of Equivalent weight/Mass :

For elements, equivalent weight (E) = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Equivalent weight (E) = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev (v.f. = valency factor)

Concept of number of equivalents :

No. of equivalents of solute = Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

No. of equivalents of solute = No. of moles of solute x v.f.

Normality (N): 

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Normality = Molarity x v.f.

Calculation of valency Factor :

n-factor of acid = basicity = no. of H+ ion(s) furnished per molecule of the acid, 

n-factor of base = acidity = no. of OH- ion(s) furnised by the base per molecule.

At equivalence point:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Volume strength of H2O2:

20V H2O2 means one litre of this sample of H2O2 on decomposition gives 20 It. of O2 gas at S.T.P.

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Measurement of Hardness:

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Calculation of available chlorine from a sample of bleaching powder :

Chapter - 1 Physical Chemistry Class 12 Notes | EduRev where x = molarity of hypo solution and v = mL. of hypo solution used in titration.

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