Page 1 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 1 Module 5 Lecture 28 Consolidation2 Topics 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution 1.1.4 Numerical Solution for OneDimensional Consolidation ? Consolidation in a layered soil 1.1.5 Degree of Consolidation under TimeDependent Loading 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution Using the basic equation for excess pore water pressure and with proper boundary conditions, relations for and for various other types of initial excess pore water pressure distribution can be obtained. Figure 5.10 and 5.11 present some of these cases. Figure 5.10 Some forms of initial excess pore water pressure distribution Page 2 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 1 Module 5 Lecture 28 Consolidation2 Topics 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution 1.1.4 Numerical Solution for OneDimensional Consolidation ? Consolidation in a layered soil 1.1.5 Degree of Consolidation under TimeDependent Loading 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution Using the basic equation for excess pore water pressure and with proper boundary conditions, relations for and for various other types of initial excess pore water pressure distribution can be obtained. Figure 5.10 and 5.11 present some of these cases. Figure 5.10 Some forms of initial excess pore water pressure distribution NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 2 Example 1 Consider the case of initial excess hydrostatic pore water that is constant with depth, i.e., (Figure 5.12). For , determine the degree of consolidation at a depth H/3 measured from the top of the layer. Figure 5.12 Solution From equation (32), for constant pore water pressure increase, Figure 5.11 Variation of for initial excess pore water pressure diagrams shown in Figure 5. 10 Page 3 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 1 Module 5 Lecture 28 Consolidation2 Topics 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution 1.1.4 Numerical Solution for OneDimensional Consolidation ? Consolidation in a layered soil 1.1.5 Degree of Consolidation under TimeDependent Loading 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution Using the basic equation for excess pore water pressure and with proper boundary conditions, relations for and for various other types of initial excess pore water pressure distribution can be obtained. Figure 5.10 and 5.11 present some of these cases. Figure 5.10 Some forms of initial excess pore water pressure distribution NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 2 Example 1 Consider the case of initial excess hydrostatic pore water that is constant with depth, i.e., (Figure 5.12). For , determine the degree of consolidation at a depth H/3 measured from the top of the layer. Figure 5.12 Solution From equation (32), for constant pore water pressure increase, Figure 5.11 Variation of for initial excess pore water pressure diagrams shown in Figure 5. 10 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 3 . We can now make a table to calculate 1. 2. 0.3 0.3 0.3 3. 0 1 2 4. 5. 6. 1.273 0.4244 0.2546 7. 0.4770 0.00128 8. 0.5 1.0 0.5 9. 0.3036 0.00005 Using the value of 0.3041 calculated in step 9, the degree of consolidation at depth H/3 is Note that in the above table we need not go beyond , since the expression in step 9 is negligible for . Example 2 Due to certain loading conditions, the excess pore water pressure in a clay layer (drained at top and bottom) increased in the manner shown in Figure 5.13. For a time factor , calculate the average degree of consolidation. Figure 5.13 Solution The excess pore water pressure diagram shown in Figure 5.13 can be expressed as the difference of two diagrams, as shown in Figure 5.14b and c. the excess pore water pressure diagrams in Figure 5. 14b shows a case where varies linearly with depth. Figure 5.14c can be approximated as a sinusoidal variation. Page 4 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 1 Module 5 Lecture 28 Consolidation2 Topics 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution 1.1.4 Numerical Solution for OneDimensional Consolidation ? Consolidation in a layered soil 1.1.5 Degree of Consolidation under TimeDependent Loading 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution Using the basic equation for excess pore water pressure and with proper boundary conditions, relations for and for various other types of initial excess pore water pressure distribution can be obtained. Figure 5.10 and 5.11 present some of these cases. Figure 5.10 Some forms of initial excess pore water pressure distribution NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 2 Example 1 Consider the case of initial excess hydrostatic pore water that is constant with depth, i.e., (Figure 5.12). For , determine the degree of consolidation at a depth H/3 measured from the top of the layer. Figure 5.12 Solution From equation (32), for constant pore water pressure increase, Figure 5.11 Variation of for initial excess pore water pressure diagrams shown in Figure 5. 10 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 3 . We can now make a table to calculate 1. 2. 0.3 0.3 0.3 3. 0 1 2 4. 5. 6. 1.273 0.4244 0.2546 7. 0.4770 0.00128 8. 0.5 1.0 0.5 9. 0.3036 0.00005 Using the value of 0.3041 calculated in step 9, the degree of consolidation at depth H/3 is Note that in the above table we need not go beyond , since the expression in step 9 is negligible for . Example 2 Due to certain loading conditions, the excess pore water pressure in a clay layer (drained at top and bottom) increased in the manner shown in Figure 5.13. For a time factor , calculate the average degree of consolidation. Figure 5.13 Solution The excess pore water pressure diagram shown in Figure 5.13 can be expressed as the difference of two diagrams, as shown in Figure 5.14b and c. the excess pore water pressure diagrams in Figure 5. 14b shows a case where varies linearly with depth. Figure 5.14c can be approximated as a sinusoidal variation. NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 4 Figure 5.14 The area of the diagram in Figure 5.14b is The area of the diagram in Figure 5.14c is The average degree of consolidation can now be calculated as follows: Form Figure 5. 6, for . So Example 3uniform surcharge of is applied on the ground surface as shown in Figure 5. 15a. (a) Determine the initial excess pore water pressure distribution in the clay layer. (b) Plot the distribution of the excess pore water pressure with depth in the clay layer at a time for which . Page 5 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 1 Module 5 Lecture 28 Consolidation2 Topics 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution 1.1.4 Numerical Solution for OneDimensional Consolidation ? Consolidation in a layered soil 1.1.5 Degree of Consolidation under TimeDependent Loading 1.1.3 Relations of and for Other Forms of Initial Excess Pore Water Pressure Distribution Using the basic equation for excess pore water pressure and with proper boundary conditions, relations for and for various other types of initial excess pore water pressure distribution can be obtained. Figure 5.10 and 5.11 present some of these cases. Figure 5.10 Some forms of initial excess pore water pressure distribution NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 2 Example 1 Consider the case of initial excess hydrostatic pore water that is constant with depth, i.e., (Figure 5.12). For , determine the degree of consolidation at a depth H/3 measured from the top of the layer. Figure 5.12 Solution From equation (32), for constant pore water pressure increase, Figure 5.11 Variation of for initial excess pore water pressure diagrams shown in Figure 5. 10 NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 3 . We can now make a table to calculate 1. 2. 0.3 0.3 0.3 3. 0 1 2 4. 5. 6. 1.273 0.4244 0.2546 7. 0.4770 0.00128 8. 0.5 1.0 0.5 9. 0.3036 0.00005 Using the value of 0.3041 calculated in step 9, the degree of consolidation at depth H/3 is Note that in the above table we need not go beyond , since the expression in step 9 is negligible for . Example 2 Due to certain loading conditions, the excess pore water pressure in a clay layer (drained at top and bottom) increased in the manner shown in Figure 5.13. For a time factor , calculate the average degree of consolidation. Figure 5.13 Solution The excess pore water pressure diagram shown in Figure 5.13 can be expressed as the difference of two diagrams, as shown in Figure 5.14b and c. the excess pore water pressure diagrams in Figure 5. 14b shows a case where varies linearly with depth. Figure 5.14c can be approximated as a sinusoidal variation. NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 4 Figure 5.14 The area of the diagram in Figure 5.14b is The area of the diagram in Figure 5.14c is The average degree of consolidation can now be calculated as follows: Form Figure 5. 6, for . So Example 3uniform surcharge of is applied on the ground surface as shown in Figure 5. 15a. (a) Determine the initial excess pore water pressure distribution in the clay layer. (b) Plot the distribution of the excess pore water pressure with depth in the clay layer at a time for which . NPTEL Advanced Geotechnical Engineering Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 5 Figure 5.15 Solution Part (a): the initial excess pore water pressure will be and will be the same throughout the clay layer (Figure 5.15b; refer to Prob. 1 in chapter 4). Part (b): From equation (31), . For can be obtained from the top half of Figure 5. 5 as shown in Figure 5.16a. 0 0 0.63 740 0.2 2 0.65 700 0.4 4 0.71 580 0.6 6 0.78 440 0.8 8 0.89 220 1.0 10 1 0 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.16b shows the variation of excess pore water pressure with depth.Read More
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