Chapter 4 - Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : Chapter 4 - Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds 
 
Carbon  
? Atomic no. – 6 
? Atomic mass – 12 
? Electronic configuration – 2,4 
? All living organisms are made up of carbon compounds 
? Carbon form covalent bonds i.e. bonds formed by sharing of electrons. 
? Tetravalent – has “4” valency, which means it can combine with 4 same or different elements 
? Catenation – ability of carbon to bond with other carbon atoms  
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. and so on 
 
Catenation can occur in three different ways 
o Straight chains - C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. 
o Branched chains – C-C-C-C-C-C-C 
-C- 
o Cyclic or ring type  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carbon is a small atom and therefore nuclei is able to hold the electrons very strongly which makes the carbon 
compounds very stable 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Fig. Electron dot structure of Carbon 
 
 
Page 2


Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds 
 
Carbon  
? Atomic no. – 6 
? Atomic mass – 12 
? Electronic configuration – 2,4 
? All living organisms are made up of carbon compounds 
? Carbon form covalent bonds i.e. bonds formed by sharing of electrons. 
? Tetravalent – has “4” valency, which means it can combine with 4 same or different elements 
? Catenation – ability of carbon to bond with other carbon atoms  
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. and so on 
 
Catenation can occur in three different ways 
o Straight chains - C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. 
o Branched chains – C-C-C-C-C-C-C 
-C- 
o Cyclic or ring type  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carbon is a small atom and therefore nuclei is able to hold the electrons very strongly which makes the carbon 
compounds very stable 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Fig. Electron dot structure of Carbon 
 
 
Allotropes  
The various physical forms in which an element is found are known as its allotropes 
Allotropes of carbon 
? Diamond 
? Graphite  
? Buckminsterfullerene 
Diamond 
? Colorless and transparent 
? Shiny and heavy 
? Does not conduct electricity 
? Diamond burns to produce carbon dioxide 
? Melting point – 3500
0
C 
? Each atom of carbon is bonded with four other atoms of carbon by covalent bonds 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of diamond 
Applications of diamond 
? Used for making jewelry 
? Drilling oil wells 
? Remove cataract 
 
Graphite 
 
? Greyish color 
? Lighter than diamond 
? Soft and slippery 
? Graphite burn to produce carbon dioxide 
? Good conductor of electricity 
? Each carbon atom is combined with three (covalent bonds with two and weak Vander waal forces with 
the third forming a sheet like structure, which also makes it soft) 
? One free electron (only three are combined with other carbon atoms) helps in the conduction of 
electricity. 
Page 3


Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds 
 
Carbon  
? Atomic no. – 6 
? Atomic mass – 12 
? Electronic configuration – 2,4 
? All living organisms are made up of carbon compounds 
? Carbon form covalent bonds i.e. bonds formed by sharing of electrons. 
? Tetravalent – has “4” valency, which means it can combine with 4 same or different elements 
? Catenation – ability of carbon to bond with other carbon atoms  
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. and so on 
 
Catenation can occur in three different ways 
o Straight chains - C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. 
o Branched chains – C-C-C-C-C-C-C 
-C- 
o Cyclic or ring type  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carbon is a small atom and therefore nuclei is able to hold the electrons very strongly which makes the carbon 
compounds very stable 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Fig. Electron dot structure of Carbon 
 
 
Allotropes  
The various physical forms in which an element is found are known as its allotropes 
Allotropes of carbon 
? Diamond 
? Graphite  
? Buckminsterfullerene 
Diamond 
? Colorless and transparent 
? Shiny and heavy 
? Does not conduct electricity 
? Diamond burns to produce carbon dioxide 
? Melting point – 3500
0
C 
? Each atom of carbon is bonded with four other atoms of carbon by covalent bonds 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of diamond 
Applications of diamond 
? Used for making jewelry 
? Drilling oil wells 
? Remove cataract 
 
Graphite 
 
? Greyish color 
? Lighter than diamond 
? Soft and slippery 
? Graphite burn to produce carbon dioxide 
? Good conductor of electricity 
? Each carbon atom is combined with three (covalent bonds with two and weak Vander waal forces with 
the third forming a sheet like structure, which also makes it soft) 
? One free electron (only three are combined with other carbon atoms) helps in the conduction of 
electricity. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of graphite 
Applications 
? Used as lubricant 
? Used in electrodes of batteries 
? Used in leads of pencils 
Buckminsterfullerene 
? Made of 60 carbon atoms joined to form a sphere containing 20 hexagon and 12 pentagons 
? Solid at room temperature 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of Buckminsterfullerene 
 
Organic compounds or Carbon compounds 
? Organic compounds are also known as compounds of carbon 
? Have low melting and boiling point 
? It was believed that organic compounds can only be derived from living organisms before Fredrich 
Wohler produced ammonia (CO(NH2)2) in laboratory in the year 1828 
? Oxides, carbonates, carbides and hydrogen carbonates of carbon are not considered organic compounds 
 
No. of Carbon atoms Prefix used 
1 Meth 
2 Eth 
3 Prop 
4 But 
5 Pent 
6 Hex 
Page 4


Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds 
 
Carbon  
? Atomic no. – 6 
? Atomic mass – 12 
? Electronic configuration – 2,4 
? All living organisms are made up of carbon compounds 
? Carbon form covalent bonds i.e. bonds formed by sharing of electrons. 
? Tetravalent – has “4” valency, which means it can combine with 4 same or different elements 
? Catenation – ability of carbon to bond with other carbon atoms  
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. and so on 
 
Catenation can occur in three different ways 
o Straight chains - C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. 
o Branched chains – C-C-C-C-C-C-C 
-C- 
o Cyclic or ring type  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carbon is a small atom and therefore nuclei is able to hold the electrons very strongly which makes the carbon 
compounds very stable 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Fig. Electron dot structure of Carbon 
 
 
Allotropes  
The various physical forms in which an element is found are known as its allotropes 
Allotropes of carbon 
? Diamond 
? Graphite  
? Buckminsterfullerene 
Diamond 
? Colorless and transparent 
? Shiny and heavy 
? Does not conduct electricity 
? Diamond burns to produce carbon dioxide 
? Melting point – 3500
0
C 
? Each atom of carbon is bonded with four other atoms of carbon by covalent bonds 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of diamond 
Applications of diamond 
? Used for making jewelry 
? Drilling oil wells 
? Remove cataract 
 
Graphite 
 
? Greyish color 
? Lighter than diamond 
? Soft and slippery 
? Graphite burn to produce carbon dioxide 
? Good conductor of electricity 
? Each carbon atom is combined with three (covalent bonds with two and weak Vander waal forces with 
the third forming a sheet like structure, which also makes it soft) 
? One free electron (only three are combined with other carbon atoms) helps in the conduction of 
electricity. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of graphite 
Applications 
? Used as lubricant 
? Used in electrodes of batteries 
? Used in leads of pencils 
Buckminsterfullerene 
? Made of 60 carbon atoms joined to form a sphere containing 20 hexagon and 12 pentagons 
? Solid at room temperature 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of Buckminsterfullerene 
 
Organic compounds or Carbon compounds 
? Organic compounds are also known as compounds of carbon 
? Have low melting and boiling point 
? It was believed that organic compounds can only be derived from living organisms before Fredrich 
Wohler produced ammonia (CO(NH2)2) in laboratory in the year 1828 
? Oxides, carbonates, carbides and hydrogen carbonates of carbon are not considered organic compounds 
 
No. of Carbon atoms Prefix used 
1 Meth 
2 Eth 
3 Prop 
4 But 
5 Pent 
6 Hex 
7 Hept 
8 Oct 
9 Neo, Non 
10  Dec 
 
Types of Organic compounds  
1. Hydrocarbons 
2. Haloalkanes 
3. Alcohols 
4. Aldehydes 
5. Ketones 
6. Carboxylic acid 
 
 
Hydrocarbons 
These are made up of carbon and hydrogen 
 
Types of hydrocarbons 
? Saturated hydrocarbons  
? Carbon atoms are connected by single bonds only. They are also known as alkanes. Suffix used is 
“ane”. Prefix denotes the number of carbon atoms (given in the table above) 
o Example – “Meth” means “one” and “ane” means alkane so a hydrocarbon with one carbon 
is known as methane (CH4). Same is for ethane, butane, pentane, hexane.  
o The remaining bonds or electrons are completed by the hydrogen atoms. For e.g. there are 4 
free electrons in carbon so methane with one carbon has 4 hydrogens.  
o Ethane with 2 carbons has total of 8 free electrons. One electron from each carbon bonds to 
form a single bond (2 electrons gets occupied). So, number of hydrogen atoms are 6 and the 
formula for ethane is C2H6. 
? General formula – CnH(2n+2), where “n” is the number of carbon atoms. 
? Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8)), Butane (C4H10) and so on……. 
? Chemically they are not very reactive 
 
 
 
 
 
                          Fig. Structure of ethane    
 
 
Page 5


Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds 
 
Carbon  
? Atomic no. – 6 
? Atomic mass – 12 
? Electronic configuration – 2,4 
? All living organisms are made up of carbon compounds 
? Carbon form covalent bonds i.e. bonds formed by sharing of electrons. 
? Tetravalent – has “4” valency, which means it can combine with 4 same or different elements 
? Catenation – ability of carbon to bond with other carbon atoms  
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. and so on 
 
Catenation can occur in three different ways 
o Straight chains - C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C…………. 
o Branched chains – C-C-C-C-C-C-C 
-C- 
o Cyclic or ring type  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carbon is a small atom and therefore nuclei is able to hold the electrons very strongly which makes the carbon 
compounds very stable 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Fig. Electron dot structure of Carbon 
 
 
Allotropes  
The various physical forms in which an element is found are known as its allotropes 
Allotropes of carbon 
? Diamond 
? Graphite  
? Buckminsterfullerene 
Diamond 
? Colorless and transparent 
? Shiny and heavy 
? Does not conduct electricity 
? Diamond burns to produce carbon dioxide 
? Melting point – 3500
0
C 
? Each atom of carbon is bonded with four other atoms of carbon by covalent bonds 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of diamond 
Applications of diamond 
? Used for making jewelry 
? Drilling oil wells 
? Remove cataract 
 
Graphite 
 
? Greyish color 
? Lighter than diamond 
? Soft and slippery 
? Graphite burn to produce carbon dioxide 
? Good conductor of electricity 
? Each carbon atom is combined with three (covalent bonds with two and weak Vander waal forces with 
the third forming a sheet like structure, which also makes it soft) 
? One free electron (only three are combined with other carbon atoms) helps in the conduction of 
electricity. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of graphite 
Applications 
? Used as lubricant 
? Used in electrodes of batteries 
? Used in leads of pencils 
Buckminsterfullerene 
? Made of 60 carbon atoms joined to form a sphere containing 20 hexagon and 12 pentagons 
? Solid at room temperature 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Fig. Structure of Buckminsterfullerene 
 
Organic compounds or Carbon compounds 
? Organic compounds are also known as compounds of carbon 
? Have low melting and boiling point 
? It was believed that organic compounds can only be derived from living organisms before Fredrich 
Wohler produced ammonia (CO(NH2)2) in laboratory in the year 1828 
? Oxides, carbonates, carbides and hydrogen carbonates of carbon are not considered organic compounds 
 
No. of Carbon atoms Prefix used 
1 Meth 
2 Eth 
3 Prop 
4 But 
5 Pent 
6 Hex 
7 Hept 
8 Oct 
9 Neo, Non 
10  Dec 
 
Types of Organic compounds  
1. Hydrocarbons 
2. Haloalkanes 
3. Alcohols 
4. Aldehydes 
5. Ketones 
6. Carboxylic acid 
 
 
Hydrocarbons 
These are made up of carbon and hydrogen 
 
Types of hydrocarbons 
? Saturated hydrocarbons  
? Carbon atoms are connected by single bonds only. They are also known as alkanes. Suffix used is 
“ane”. Prefix denotes the number of carbon atoms (given in the table above) 
o Example – “Meth” means “one” and “ane” means alkane so a hydrocarbon with one carbon 
is known as methane (CH4). Same is for ethane, butane, pentane, hexane.  
o The remaining bonds or electrons are completed by the hydrogen atoms. For e.g. there are 4 
free electrons in carbon so methane with one carbon has 4 hydrogens.  
o Ethane with 2 carbons has total of 8 free electrons. One electron from each carbon bonds to 
form a single bond (2 electrons gets occupied). So, number of hydrogen atoms are 6 and the 
formula for ethane is C2H6. 
? General formula – CnH(2n+2), where “n” is the number of carbon atoms. 
? Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8)), Butane (C4H10) and so on……. 
? Chemically they are not very reactive 
 
 
 
 
 
                          Fig. Structure of ethane    
 
 
o Alkyle – It is formed by removing a hydrogen atom from an alkane (the one with the single 
bonds) 
? General formula – CnH(2n+1) 
? Example – Alkyl of methane (CH4) is methyl (CH3 ----) (one bond is empty).  
 Similarly, alkyl group of ethane (C2H6) is ethyl (C2H5---) (one bond empty) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
? Unsaturated hydrocarbons 
? Carbon atoms are connected with more than one bond 
o Alkene – Two carbon atoms are bonded by “two” covalent bonds, rest by single bonds 
? General formula – CnH2n 
? Suffix – “ene” 
? Smallest alkene – Ethene (C2H4) 
? Examples – Ethene (C2H4), Propene (C3H6), Butene (C4H8) and so on……… 
? The position of double bond can vary in alkenes higher than ethene (name however, 
more or less remain same) 
 
 
 
 
 
    Fig. Structure of ethene 
  
o Alkyne - Two carbon atoms are bonded by “two” covalent bonds, rest by single bonds 
? General formula – CnH(2n-2) 
? Suffix – “yne” 
? Smallest alkene – Ethyne (C2H2) 
? Examples – Ethene (C2H2), Propene (C3H4), Butene (C4H6) and so on……… 
? The position of triple bond can vary in alkynes higher than ethene (name however, 
more or less remain same) 
 
 
Cyclic hydrocarbons 
          Carbon atoms are arranged in form of a ring. 
           Example – A saturated hydrocarbon with five carbon atoms is known as cyclopentane.  
           General formula – CnH2n (for cyclic saturated hydrocarbons) 
 
 
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