Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical)

Civil Engineering (CE) : Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

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Chapter 5 Fluid Dynamics

  • Reynolds equation  = Intertia force + gravity force + viscous force + turbulence force + pressure force 
  • Navier - Stoke's equation = Intertia gravity force  +  pressure force  +  viscous force 
  • Eulers equation (represents momentum equation in a 2-D, inviscid steady flow) Inertia force = gravity force  +  pressure force 
  • Bernoulli's equation (Conservation of Energy) Assumptions in Bernoullis equations:

(i) fluid is ideal
(ii) flow is steady
(iii) flow is continous
(iv) fluid is incompressible
(v) flow is non-viscous
(vi) flow is irrotational
(vii) applicable along a stream line Z cons tant pg P
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
where,
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
 = velocity head
p/rg = pressure head
z = elevation of datum head
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
 =  piezometric head

Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

  • The line representing the sum of all 3 heads is known as total energy line or total head line. 
  • Line joining the points of piezometric heads is known as hydraulic grade line or piezometric line. 
  • Piezometric head remains constant normal to the stream lines in case of uniform diameter straight pipe. 
  • Flow in pipe bend, considered as irrotational flow. Piezometric head line for outer boundary is above than the inner boundary and pressure is also more at outer boundary 
  • HGL is always parallel and lower than TEL.
  • Energy gradient

Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

  • Hydraulic gradient  

Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

  • Kinetic Energy correction factor (i) For laminar flow in pipes, a = 2 (ii) For f ully devel op turbulent f low in pipes, a = 1.33 Lower value is applicable for rough surface and high Reynolds number. 
  • Pressure at stagnation point where velocity of flow is zero is known as the stagnation pressure.

Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
where po = static pressure and
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev= dynamic pressure

  • Flow through Pipe bend

Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

Fx and Fy represents the reaction of bend on water. 

Torque exerted by the water on the pipe will be

Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

V1 = tangential velocity component of absolute velocity at 1

V2 = tangential velocity component of absolute velocity at 2
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev
Fluid Dynamics Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

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