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**Chapter 6**

**SLUDGE DISPOSAL, EFFLUENT DISCHARGE STANDARD**

Sludge and its moisture content: The moisture content of sludge is defined as volume of water present in sludge to the volume of sludge.

Actually instead of volume we should use mass but the density of sludge is approximately 1gm/cc so we used volume.

Let volume of solids is 1. Initially moisture content is p_{1} % and it reduced to p_{2} . Let volume of water at initial stage is x and it reduced to y

100x = P_{1} + P_{1}x 100 y = P_{2} + P_{2}y

x[100 - p_{1}]= P_{1}

y[100 - p_{2}]= p_{2}

and

Dilution and dispersion: C_{s} = Sweage concentration

C_{R} = River concentration

Q_{S} = Sewage discharge

Q_{R} = river discharge

C = Combined concentration

** Zones of pollution in a river stream :**

1. Zone od degradation

2. Zone of active decomposition

3. Zone of recovery

4. Zone of clear water

Oxygen deficit: The oxygen deficit 'D' at any time in a polluted river stream is te difference between the actual DO content of water at that time and saturation DO content at the water temperature.

Oxygen deficit D = Saturation DO - Actual DO

DO

time

**Streeter-Phelps equation:**

Integration factor

Separating variables and integrate

At t = 0, D = D_{0}

**Critical time: the time at which critical deficit.**

**At critical time**

Putting t_{c }value we get

Where

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