Page 1 Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1 Chapter 8 Weights and centre of gravity - 2 Lecture 33 Topics Example 8.1 Example 8.2 Example 8.1 For the sixty seater airplane considered in examples 3.1, 4.19, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3, obtain the following. (i) Weights and c.g. locations of (a) wing, (b) fuselage, (c) h.tail, (d) v.tail, (e) landing gear, (f) installed engine, (g) all else empty (h) fuel (i) payload. (ii) Location of wing such that the c.g. of the entire airplane with MTOW is at quarter chord of m.a.c. (iii) Shift in the c.g. of the airplane for the following cases. (a) Full payload but no fuel. (b) No payload and no fuel. (c) No payload but full fuel. (d) Full fuel but half of the payload in the front half of passenger cabin. (e) Full fuel but half of the payload in the rear half of passenger cabin. Solution : From example 3.1 the gross weight of the airplane is 21,280 kgf or 208,757 N I)The weights and c.g. locations of various components are estimated below. (A) Wing From examples 5.1 and 6.1 the following data are obtained. Wing area = 58.48 m 2 Root chord of wing = 2.636 m Tip chord of wing = 1.318 m Wing span = 26.49 m ; semispan = 13.245 m Constant chord of 2.636 m upto 4.636 m from FRL Page 2 Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1 Chapter 8 Weights and centre of gravity - 2 Lecture 33 Topics Example 8.1 Example 8.2 Example 8.1 For the sixty seater airplane considered in examples 3.1, 4.19, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3, obtain the following. (i) Weights and c.g. locations of (a) wing, (b) fuselage, (c) h.tail, (d) v.tail, (e) landing gear, (f) installed engine, (g) all else empty (h) fuel (i) payload. (ii) Location of wing such that the c.g. of the entire airplane with MTOW is at quarter chord of m.a.c. (iii) Shift in the c.g. of the airplane for the following cases. (a) Full payload but no fuel. (b) No payload and no fuel. (c) No payload but full fuel. (d) Full fuel but half of the payload in the front half of passenger cabin. (e) Full fuel but half of the payload in the rear half of passenger cabin. Solution : From example 3.1 the gross weight of the airplane is 21,280 kgf or 208,757 N I)The weights and c.g. locations of various components are estimated below. (A) Wing From examples 5.1 and 6.1 the following data are obtained. Wing area = 58.48 m 2 Root chord of wing = 2.636 m Tip chord of wing = 1.318 m Wing span = 26.49 m ; semispan = 13.245 m Constant chord of 2.636 m upto 4.636 m from FRL Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2 Fuselage width = 2.88 m Mean aerodynamic chord = 2.295 m Location of the leading edge of m.a.c. from the leading edge of wing = 0.237 m Location at the a.c. of the wing from the wing root chord = 0.811 m Referring to Fig.E5.1 and using the above data the area of the exposed wing is : (S exposed ) wing = 2 ? ? ?? 13.245-4.636 2.88 2.636 4.636- + 2.636+1.318 22 ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = 2 ? ? 2 8.425 + 17.02 = 50.89 m Remark : A simpler way to get the area of exposed wing in this case, where, the chord is constant in the inboard portion of the wing, is : 58.48 – 2.88 x 2.636 = 50.89 m 2 Using Table 8.1, the estimated weight of the wing is : 50.89 x 49 = 2493.6 kgf = 24,462.3 N Or wing g W = 24462.3 / 208757 = 11.72 % W From Table 8.1, the c.g. of wing is at 40% of m.a.c. Hence, the location of the c.g. of wing from the leading edge of the root chord of the wing is at : 0.237 + 0.4 x 2.295 = 1.155 m (B) Horizontal tail The horizontal tail is mounted on V.tail. Hence, its exposed area is taken roughly equal to planform area which equals 11.11 m 2 . Hence, weight of h.tail = 11.11 x 27 = 300 kgf = 2943 N = 1.41 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the horizontal tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of h.tail = 1.52 m The distance between the leading edge of the root and the leading edge of m.a.c. is 1.711 x tan 11.24 = 0.34 m From Table 8.1, the c.g. of the h.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the Page 3 Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1 Chapter 8 Weights and centre of gravity - 2 Lecture 33 Topics Example 8.1 Example 8.2 Example 8.1 For the sixty seater airplane considered in examples 3.1, 4.19, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3, obtain the following. (i) Weights and c.g. locations of (a) wing, (b) fuselage, (c) h.tail, (d) v.tail, (e) landing gear, (f) installed engine, (g) all else empty (h) fuel (i) payload. (ii) Location of wing such that the c.g. of the entire airplane with MTOW is at quarter chord of m.a.c. (iii) Shift in the c.g. of the airplane for the following cases. (a) Full payload but no fuel. (b) No payload and no fuel. (c) No payload but full fuel. (d) Full fuel but half of the payload in the front half of passenger cabin. (e) Full fuel but half of the payload in the rear half of passenger cabin. Solution : From example 3.1 the gross weight of the airplane is 21,280 kgf or 208,757 N I)The weights and c.g. locations of various components are estimated below. (A) Wing From examples 5.1 and 6.1 the following data are obtained. Wing area = 58.48 m 2 Root chord of wing = 2.636 m Tip chord of wing = 1.318 m Wing span = 26.49 m ; semispan = 13.245 m Constant chord of 2.636 m upto 4.636 m from FRL Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2 Fuselage width = 2.88 m Mean aerodynamic chord = 2.295 m Location of the leading edge of m.a.c. from the leading edge of wing = 0.237 m Location at the a.c. of the wing from the wing root chord = 0.811 m Referring to Fig.E5.1 and using the above data the area of the exposed wing is : (S exposed ) wing = 2 ? ? ?? 13.245-4.636 2.88 2.636 4.636- + 2.636+1.318 22 ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = 2 ? ? 2 8.425 + 17.02 = 50.89 m Remark : A simpler way to get the area of exposed wing in this case, where, the chord is constant in the inboard portion of the wing, is : 58.48 – 2.88 x 2.636 = 50.89 m 2 Using Table 8.1, the estimated weight of the wing is : 50.89 x 49 = 2493.6 kgf = 24,462.3 N Or wing g W = 24462.3 / 208757 = 11.72 % W From Table 8.1, the c.g. of wing is at 40% of m.a.c. Hence, the location of the c.g. of wing from the leading edge of the root chord of the wing is at : 0.237 + 0.4 x 2.295 = 1.155 m (B) Horizontal tail The horizontal tail is mounted on V.tail. Hence, its exposed area is taken roughly equal to planform area which equals 11.11 m 2 . Hence, weight of h.tail = 11.11 x 27 = 300 kgf = 2943 N = 1.41 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the horizontal tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of h.tail = 1.52 m The distance between the leading edge of the root and the leading edge of m.a.c. is 1.711 x tan 11.24 = 0.34 m From Table 8.1, the c.g. of the h.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3 distance between the leading edge of the root chord of h.tail and the c.g. of h.tail is : 0.34 + 0.4 x 1.52 = 0.95 m (C) Vertical tail The contribution of dorsal fin to the weight of v.tail is ignored at this stage of preliminary design. Area of v.tail = 12.92 m 2 Hence, weight of v.tail = 12.92 x 27 = 348.8 kgf = 3422 N = 1.64 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the v.tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of v.tail = 2.60 m The distance between leading edge of the root chord of v.tail and leading edge of m.a.c. = 2.366 tan 30 o = 1.366 m From Table 8.1 the c.g. of v.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the distance between the root chord of v.tail and c.g. of v.tail is : 1.366 + 0.4 x 2.6 = 2.41 m (D) Engine As mentioned in example 6.3, the weight of each engine is 450 kgf. Hence, from Table 8.1, the installed weight of the two engines is : 2 x 1.3 x 450 = 1170 kgf = 11478 N = 5.5 % of W g As regards the location of c.g. of the engine, Ref.1.24, chapter 11, mentions that for gas turbine engines the location of c.g. from the engine inlet is between 30 to 45% of engine length. In the present case the engine length is 2.13 m. From Fig.6.7a it is assumed that the engine inlet is just behind the boss of the propeller. From example 6.3 the boss of the propeller is at 1.58 m from the leading edge of the wing. Taking c.g. of engine to be at 40 % of engine length, the location of engine c.g. from the leading edge of the wing is : -1.58 + 0.4 x 2.13 = - 0.728 m i.e. 0.728 m ahead of the leading edge of the root chord of the wing. Page 4 Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1 Chapter 8 Weights and centre of gravity - 2 Lecture 33 Topics Example 8.1 Example 8.2 Example 8.1 For the sixty seater airplane considered in examples 3.1, 4.19, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3, obtain the following. (i) Weights and c.g. locations of (a) wing, (b) fuselage, (c) h.tail, (d) v.tail, (e) landing gear, (f) installed engine, (g) all else empty (h) fuel (i) payload. (ii) Location of wing such that the c.g. of the entire airplane with MTOW is at quarter chord of m.a.c. (iii) Shift in the c.g. of the airplane for the following cases. (a) Full payload but no fuel. (b) No payload and no fuel. (c) No payload but full fuel. (d) Full fuel but half of the payload in the front half of passenger cabin. (e) Full fuel but half of the payload in the rear half of passenger cabin. Solution : From example 3.1 the gross weight of the airplane is 21,280 kgf or 208,757 N I)The weights and c.g. locations of various components are estimated below. (A) Wing From examples 5.1 and 6.1 the following data are obtained. Wing area = 58.48 m 2 Root chord of wing = 2.636 m Tip chord of wing = 1.318 m Wing span = 26.49 m ; semispan = 13.245 m Constant chord of 2.636 m upto 4.636 m from FRL Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2 Fuselage width = 2.88 m Mean aerodynamic chord = 2.295 m Location of the leading edge of m.a.c. from the leading edge of wing = 0.237 m Location at the a.c. of the wing from the wing root chord = 0.811 m Referring to Fig.E5.1 and using the above data the area of the exposed wing is : (S exposed ) wing = 2 ? ? ?? 13.245-4.636 2.88 2.636 4.636- + 2.636+1.318 22 ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = 2 ? ? 2 8.425 + 17.02 = 50.89 m Remark : A simpler way to get the area of exposed wing in this case, where, the chord is constant in the inboard portion of the wing, is : 58.48 – 2.88 x 2.636 = 50.89 m 2 Using Table 8.1, the estimated weight of the wing is : 50.89 x 49 = 2493.6 kgf = 24,462.3 N Or wing g W = 24462.3 / 208757 = 11.72 % W From Table 8.1, the c.g. of wing is at 40% of m.a.c. Hence, the location of the c.g. of wing from the leading edge of the root chord of the wing is at : 0.237 + 0.4 x 2.295 = 1.155 m (B) Horizontal tail The horizontal tail is mounted on V.tail. Hence, its exposed area is taken roughly equal to planform area which equals 11.11 m 2 . Hence, weight of h.tail = 11.11 x 27 = 300 kgf = 2943 N = 1.41 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the horizontal tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of h.tail = 1.52 m The distance between the leading edge of the root and the leading edge of m.a.c. is 1.711 x tan 11.24 = 0.34 m From Table 8.1, the c.g. of the h.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3 distance between the leading edge of the root chord of h.tail and the c.g. of h.tail is : 0.34 + 0.4 x 1.52 = 0.95 m (C) Vertical tail The contribution of dorsal fin to the weight of v.tail is ignored at this stage of preliminary design. Area of v.tail = 12.92 m 2 Hence, weight of v.tail = 12.92 x 27 = 348.8 kgf = 3422 N = 1.64 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the v.tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of v.tail = 2.60 m The distance between leading edge of the root chord of v.tail and leading edge of m.a.c. = 2.366 tan 30 o = 1.366 m From Table 8.1 the c.g. of v.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the distance between the root chord of v.tail and c.g. of v.tail is : 1.366 + 0.4 x 2.6 = 2.41 m (D) Engine As mentioned in example 6.3, the weight of each engine is 450 kgf. Hence, from Table 8.1, the installed weight of the two engines is : 2 x 1.3 x 450 = 1170 kgf = 11478 N = 5.5 % of W g As regards the location of c.g. of the engine, Ref.1.24, chapter 11, mentions that for gas turbine engines the location of c.g. from the engine inlet is between 30 to 45% of engine length. In the present case the engine length is 2.13 m. From Fig.6.7a it is assumed that the engine inlet is just behind the boss of the propeller. From example 6.3 the boss of the propeller is at 1.58 m from the leading edge of the wing. Taking c.g. of engine to be at 40 % of engine length, the location of engine c.g. from the leading edge of the wing is : -1.58 + 0.4 x 2.13 = - 0.728 m i.e. 0.728 m ahead of the leading edge of the root chord of the wing. Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 4 (E) Landing gear From Table 8.1 the weight of the nose wheel plus the main landing gear is 4.3 % of W g i.e. 0.043 x 208757 = 8977 N Out of this total weight, the nose wheel and main wheel account for 15 % and 85 % respectively. Hence, nose wheel weighs 0.15 x 8977 = 1347 N and the main wheels weigh 0.85 x 8977 = 7630 N. As regards the locations of the c.g.’s of nose wheel and main wheels, it is recalled that the nose wheel and main wheels share respectively 10 % and 90 % of the airplane weight. From example 6.3, the wheel base is chosen as 9.78 m. Hence, the c.g. of the nose wheel is 0.9 x 9.78 = 8.802 m ahead of the c.g. of the airplane. The c.g. of the main wheels, as a group, is : 0.1 x 9.78 = 0.978 m behind the c.g. of the airplane. (F) Fuselage and systems Wetted area of fuselage is obtained as follows. Various dimensions are obtained from Fig.6.8c (a) Nose portion Length of nose = 0.7 m Diameter at the end of nose = 1.64 m Hence, average diameter = 1.64/2 = 0.82 m Consequently,wetted area or surface area of nose ? 2 p ×0.82×0.7 =1.80m (b) Cockpit portion Length of cockpit = 2.54 m Diameter at the end of cockpit = 2.88 m Hence, wetted area of cockpit portion ? 2 1.64+2.88 p× ×2.54 = 18.03 m 2 ?? ?? ?? (c) Midfuselage portion Length of midfuselage = 12.83 m Diameter of midfuselage = 2.88 m Hence, wetted area of midfuselage = p x 2.88 x 12.83 = 116.08 m 2 (d) Tail cone Page 5 Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1 Chapter 8 Weights and centre of gravity - 2 Lecture 33 Topics Example 8.1 Example 8.2 Example 8.1 For the sixty seater airplane considered in examples 3.1, 4.19, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3, obtain the following. (i) Weights and c.g. locations of (a) wing, (b) fuselage, (c) h.tail, (d) v.tail, (e) landing gear, (f) installed engine, (g) all else empty (h) fuel (i) payload. (ii) Location of wing such that the c.g. of the entire airplane with MTOW is at quarter chord of m.a.c. (iii) Shift in the c.g. of the airplane for the following cases. (a) Full payload but no fuel. (b) No payload and no fuel. (c) No payload but full fuel. (d) Full fuel but half of the payload in the front half of passenger cabin. (e) Full fuel but half of the payload in the rear half of passenger cabin. Solution : From example 3.1 the gross weight of the airplane is 21,280 kgf or 208,757 N I)The weights and c.g. locations of various components are estimated below. (A) Wing From examples 5.1 and 6.1 the following data are obtained. Wing area = 58.48 m 2 Root chord of wing = 2.636 m Tip chord of wing = 1.318 m Wing span = 26.49 m ; semispan = 13.245 m Constant chord of 2.636 m upto 4.636 m from FRL Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 2 Fuselage width = 2.88 m Mean aerodynamic chord = 2.295 m Location of the leading edge of m.a.c. from the leading edge of wing = 0.237 m Location at the a.c. of the wing from the wing root chord = 0.811 m Referring to Fig.E5.1 and using the above data the area of the exposed wing is : (S exposed ) wing = 2 ? ? ?? 13.245-4.636 2.88 2.636 4.636- + 2.636+1.318 22 ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = 2 ? ? 2 8.425 + 17.02 = 50.89 m Remark : A simpler way to get the area of exposed wing in this case, where, the chord is constant in the inboard portion of the wing, is : 58.48 – 2.88 x 2.636 = 50.89 m 2 Using Table 8.1, the estimated weight of the wing is : 50.89 x 49 = 2493.6 kgf = 24,462.3 N Or wing g W = 24462.3 / 208757 = 11.72 % W From Table 8.1, the c.g. of wing is at 40% of m.a.c. Hence, the location of the c.g. of wing from the leading edge of the root chord of the wing is at : 0.237 + 0.4 x 2.295 = 1.155 m (B) Horizontal tail The horizontal tail is mounted on V.tail. Hence, its exposed area is taken roughly equal to planform area which equals 11.11 m 2 . Hence, weight of h.tail = 11.11 x 27 = 300 kgf = 2943 N = 1.41 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the horizontal tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of h.tail = 1.52 m The distance between the leading edge of the root and the leading edge of m.a.c. is 1.711 x tan 11.24 = 0.34 m From Table 8.1, the c.g. of the h.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 3 distance between the leading edge of the root chord of h.tail and the c.g. of h.tail is : 0.34 + 0.4 x 1.52 = 0.95 m (C) Vertical tail The contribution of dorsal fin to the weight of v.tail is ignored at this stage of preliminary design. Area of v.tail = 12.92 m 2 Hence, weight of v.tail = 12.92 x 27 = 348.8 kgf = 3422 N = 1.64 % of W g To arrive at the location of the c.g. of the v.tail, the following are noted from example 6.2. Mean aerodynamic chord of v.tail = 2.60 m The distance between leading edge of the root chord of v.tail and leading edge of m.a.c. = 2.366 tan 30 o = 1.366 m From Table 8.1 the c.g. of v.tail is at 40% of its m.a.c. Consequently, the distance between the root chord of v.tail and c.g. of v.tail is : 1.366 + 0.4 x 2.6 = 2.41 m (D) Engine As mentioned in example 6.3, the weight of each engine is 450 kgf. Hence, from Table 8.1, the installed weight of the two engines is : 2 x 1.3 x 450 = 1170 kgf = 11478 N = 5.5 % of W g As regards the location of c.g. of the engine, Ref.1.24, chapter 11, mentions that for gas turbine engines the location of c.g. from the engine inlet is between 30 to 45% of engine length. In the present case the engine length is 2.13 m. From Fig.6.7a it is assumed that the engine inlet is just behind the boss of the propeller. From example 6.3 the boss of the propeller is at 1.58 m from the leading edge of the wing. Taking c.g. of engine to be at 40 % of engine length, the location of engine c.g. from the leading edge of the wing is : -1.58 + 0.4 x 2.13 = - 0.728 m i.e. 0.728 m ahead of the leading edge of the root chord of the wing. Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 4 (E) Landing gear From Table 8.1 the weight of the nose wheel plus the main landing gear is 4.3 % of W g i.e. 0.043 x 208757 = 8977 N Out of this total weight, the nose wheel and main wheel account for 15 % and 85 % respectively. Hence, nose wheel weighs 0.15 x 8977 = 1347 N and the main wheels weigh 0.85 x 8977 = 7630 N. As regards the locations of the c.g.’s of nose wheel and main wheels, it is recalled that the nose wheel and main wheels share respectively 10 % and 90 % of the airplane weight. From example 6.3, the wheel base is chosen as 9.78 m. Hence, the c.g. of the nose wheel is 0.9 x 9.78 = 8.802 m ahead of the c.g. of the airplane. The c.g. of the main wheels, as a group, is : 0.1 x 9.78 = 0.978 m behind the c.g. of the airplane. (F) Fuselage and systems Wetted area of fuselage is obtained as follows. Various dimensions are obtained from Fig.6.8c (a) Nose portion Length of nose = 0.7 m Diameter at the end of nose = 1.64 m Hence, average diameter = 1.64/2 = 0.82 m Consequently,wetted area or surface area of nose ? 2 p ×0.82×0.7 =1.80m (b) Cockpit portion Length of cockpit = 2.54 m Diameter at the end of cockpit = 2.88 m Hence, wetted area of cockpit portion ? 2 1.64+2.88 p× ×2.54 = 18.03 m 2 ?? ?? ?? (c) Midfuselage portion Length of midfuselage = 12.83 m Diameter of midfuselage = 2.88 m Hence, wetted area of midfuselage = p x 2.88 x 12.83 = 116.08 m 2 (d) Tail cone Airplane design(Aerodynamic) Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-8 Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 5 Average diameter ? 2.88 / 2 = 1.44 m Length of tail cone = 9 m Hence, wetted area of tail cone ? 2 p×1.44×9 = 40.72 m Consequently, wetted area of fuselage is : 1.80 + 18.03 + 116.08 + 40.72 = 176.63 m 2 Using value in Table 8.1, the weight of fuselage is : 176.63 x 24 = 4239.1 kgf = 41585.84 N or 19.92 % of W g Remarks: (i) An expression for quicker,but approximate, estimation of fuselage wetted area is : ?? f 0.75×l × Perimeter of the cross section with maximum area In the present case the approximate estimate would be: 0.75 x p x 2.88 x 25.07 = 170.12 m 2 This value is 96.3 % of the value obtained earlier. (ii) The weight of the fuselage as percentage or gross weight (W f /W g ) appears high. However, as noted below Table 8.1, the quantity (W f /W g ) includes weights of fuselage, furnishing, consumables etc. Reference 1.19, chapter 8 presents information on weights of various items, as percentage of W g , for different types of airplanes. For the turboprop airplane the data indicates that the weight of fuselage structure, furnishings and consumables would respectively be 9 to11 %, 4 to 6 % and 1.5 to 2 % of gross weight. These would add upto 15 to 17 % of gross weight. Further as noted in Remark (i), after the subsection 8.2.2, the weight of fuselage, along with furnishing etc., and the systems is taken as one unit. Accordingly, landinggear fuselage system empty wing engine h.tail V.tail gg ggg g g W W+W W W W WW =- + + + + WW WWWW W ?? ?? ?? ?? From example 3.1, (W empty /W g ) is 0.559. Hence, fuselage system g W+W W = 0.559 – (0.117 + 0.0141 + 0.0164 + 0.055 + 0.043) = 0.3135Read More

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