Chapter - Alkyl Halides - Organic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

: Chapter - Alkyl Halides - Organic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


7-1
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
William H. Brown &
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
Christopher Foote
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the
work should be mailed to:Permissions Department,
Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive,
Orlando, Florida 32887-6777
Page 2


7-1
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
William H. Brown &
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
Christopher Foote
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the
work should be mailed to:Permissions Department,
Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive,
Orlando, Florida 32887-6777
7-2
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Page 3


7-1
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
William H. Brown &
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
Christopher Foote
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the
work should be mailed to:Permissions Department,
Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive,
Orlando, Florida 32887-6777
7-2
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
7-3
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Structure
Structure
u Alkyl halide: a compound containing a halogen
atom covalently bonded to an sp
3
hybridized
carbon atom
•given the symbol RX
A haloalkane
(an alkyl halide)
R X
Page 4


7-1
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
William H. Brown &
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
Christopher Foote
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the
work should be mailed to:Permissions Department,
Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive,
Orlando, Florida 32887-6777
7-2
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
7-3
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Structure
Structure
u Alkyl halide: a compound containing a halogen
atom covalently bonded to an sp
3
hybridized
carbon atom
•given the symbol RX
A haloalkane
(an alkyl halide)
R X
7-4
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Vinylic and Aryl Halides
Vinylic and Aryl Halides
u If the halogen is bonded to an sp
2
hybridized
carbon, it is a called a vinylic halide
u If it is bonded to a benzene ring, it is called an
aryl halide, given the symbol Ar-X
•we do not study vinylic and aryl halides in this chapter
A haloalkene
(a vinylic halide)
C C
R
R
X
R
X
A haloarene
(an aryl halide)
Page 5


7-1
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
William H. Brown &
William H. Brown &
Christopher Foote
Christopher Foote
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the
work should be mailed to:Permissions Department,
Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive,
Orlando, Florida 32887-6777
7-2
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
7-3
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Structure
Structure
u Alkyl halide: a compound containing a halogen
atom covalently bonded to an sp
3
hybridized
carbon atom
•given the symbol RX
A haloalkane
(an alkyl halide)
R X
7-4
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Vinylic and Aryl Halides
Vinylic and Aryl Halides
u If the halogen is bonded to an sp
2
hybridized
carbon, it is a called a vinylic halide
u If it is bonded to a benzene ring, it is called an
aryl halide, given the symbol Ar-X
•we do not study vinylic and aryl halides in this chapter
A haloalkene
(a vinylic halide)
C C
R
R
X
R
X
A haloarene
(an aryl halide)
7-5
7
7
Copyright © 1998 by Saunders College Publishing
Nomenclature
Nomenclature
•locate the parent alkane
•number the parent chain to give the substituent
encountered first, be it halogen or an alkyl group, the
lower number
•halogen substituents are indicated by the prefixes
fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo- and listed in
alphabetical order with other substituents
3-Bromo-2-methylpentane 2,3-Dichlorobutane
Br CH
3
Cl Cl
CH
3
CHCHCH
3
CH
3
CH
2
CHCHCH
3
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 4
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