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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Batch Processing – Definition, Advantages, Disadvantages

 

  • A sequence of one more steps (recipe) usually carried out in more than one vessel and in a defined order, yielding a finished product

  • Production amounts are usually smaller than for continuous processing

  • Requires reduced inventories and shorter response times

  • Final product quality must be satisfied with each batch (no blending)

  • More emphasis on production scheduling in batch processing

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Other Advantages

  • Batch time can be adjusted to meet quality specs

  • Repetition is conducive to continuous improvement in product

  • Slow dynamics permit real-time calculations

  • Greater agility

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Batch Processing Used in Manufacturing

  • Electronic materials

  • Specialty chemicals

  • Metals

  • Ceramics

  • Polymers

  • Food and agricultural materials

  • Biochemicals

  • Multiphase materials/blends

  • Coatings

  • Composites

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Representative processing steps in a semiconductor wafer fab (Deposition, Patterning, Etching, Doping, etc)

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Unit operations in microelectronics manufacturing are characterized by:

  1. Physical/chemical complexity

  2. Inability to measure directly many process variables

  3. High sensitivity to process changes

  4. Multiple inputs/multiple outputs

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CD Variation Effects in Pattern Transfer

 

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

 

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Silicon Integrated Circuit Technology Roadmap

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Comparative Economics

Revenue/Capital1

Chemical & Petrochemical 22.4

Pharmaceutical 19.6

Semiconductor    6.8

  • Capital productivity is a major driving force for semiconductors

_______________

1From 1997 US Census Bureau

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Why Control Critical Dimension (CD)?

  • Small changes in CD distribution = Large $ values lost

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)
Figure 19.1  The five levels of process control and optimization in

manufacturing.  Time scales are shown for each level.

 

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Control Hierarchy in Batch Processing

  1. Sequential control to step the process through a recipe

  2. Logic control to deal with device interlocks

  3. Within-the-batch control to make set point changes and reject disturbances

  4. Run-to-run control to meet final quality constraints

  5. Batch production control to maximize utilization of equipment and minimize cycle time

 

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Batch Mixing Tank-Operations Sequence

  1. Introduce liquid A until level reaches LH2

  2. Close A valve, open B valve and start mixer

  3. When level reaches LXH2, stop flow of B and the mixer and open discharge valve (VN9)

  4. Discharge product until level reaches LL2, then close the discharge valve.

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Figure 22.7

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Graphical Description of Batch Sequence

  • Information flow diagram

  • Sequential function chart

  • Binary logic diagram

  • Ladder logic diagram

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Figure 22.8

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Within-the-Batch Control: Operational Challenges

  • Time-varying process characteristics (no steady state)

  • Nonlinear behavior

  • Model inaccuracies

  • On-line sensors often not available

  • Constrained operation

  • Unmeasured disturbances

  • Irreversible behavior

 

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

 

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)
 

Figure 3.  Definition of bring-in (Rapid Thermal Processing)

 

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Run-to-Run (RtR) Control

  • Keeps batch process product on target by using feedback to manipulate batch recipe for consecutive batches

  • Required due to a lack of in situ, real-time measurements of product quality of interest

  • Extremely useful where initial conditions or tool states are variable and unmeasurable

  • Supervisory controller determines optimal setpoints for real-time control loops (typically PID)

 

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RtR Control

  • Predominantly used in semiconductor and batch chemical industries

  • Can be viewed as discrete-time process (k, k+1, k+2 … vs. t)

  • Good for treating drifting processes (e.g. reactor fouling)

  • Run-to-run optimization can be performed using process model

  • Integrates with fault detection

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Use of RtR Control

  • Examples of events which can have slow dynamics or infrequent step changes

- equipment aging

- periodic machine maintenance

- changes in feedforward signal

-  measure disturbance

- major fault, such as instrumentation degradation

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Application:  Resist etch process

  • The incoming pattern is masked with linewidths greater than required.

  • An additional step is added to the etch process which etches the resist pattern.

  • The resist etch step trims the lines to the proper resist linewidth.

  • The rest of the etch transfers the resulting mask pattern into the polysilicon, creating the poly gate structures.

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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Results – Increased Cpk

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

 

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Reduction in STI Rework with RtR

 

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

 

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Figure 22.19  Batch control system – a more detailed view

 

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Characteristics of batch scheduling and planning problems (Pekny and Reklaitis)

DETERMINE

  • What

Product amounts:  lot sizes, batch Sizes

  • When

Timing of specific operations, run lengths

  • Where

Sites, units, equipment items

  • How

Resource types and amounts

GIVEN

  • Product requirements

Horizon, demands, starting and Ending inventories

  • Operational steps

Precedence order, Resource utilization

  • Production facilities

Types, capacities

  • Resource limitations

Types, amounts, rates

 

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Welcome to the Real World!

  • For a real lot in a real fab, there are:

    • Reworks
    • Different process equipment at previous steps

    • WIP ordering/processing

    • Equipment/Consumable material changes

    • Recipe changes/adjustments

    • Scheduled/Unscheduled maintenance

    • Multiple reticle instances

    • Engineering lots

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Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Figure 22.17  Multiproduct batch plant

 

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Multi-Product Processing Overview

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

 

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Metrology Variations

Chapter - Batch Processing, PPT, Chemical Engineering, Semester, Engineering Notes - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

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