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Chapter Notes - India: Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife
(i) In daily life, we hear about changes in weather and climate through changes in temperature, rainfall, sunshine, etc.
(ii) These are four major seasons in India:
a) Cold weather season (winter) from December to February.
b) Hot weather season (summer) from March to May.
c) South-west Monsoon season (Rainy) from June to September.
Fig: Natural vegetationd) Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) from October and November.
iii) The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief.
i) It includes all sorts of trees, shrubs and grasses. Natural vegetation is dependent upon climate conditions and the amount of rainfall a place receives.
(ii) It is of various types:
a) Tropical Rainforests occur in areas of heavy rainfall. They are also called evergreen forests.
b) Tropical Deciduous Forests occur in areas with monsoon and are found in the areas receiving between 100 cm and 200 cm of annual rainfall. They are also called monsoon forest.
c) Thorny bushes vegetation is found in dry areas.
d) Mountain vegetation is found in areas with height, like the mountainous areas.
e) Mangrove forests survive in saline water.
Why are Forests Necessary:
i) Forests release oxygen which we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide.
ii) They prevent soil erosion.
iii) They provide timber for furniture, fuel wood, medicinal plants, honey, gum, etc.
iv) They are the natural habitat of wildlife.
v) Reckless cutting of trees should be stopped to prevent natural vegetation.
i) Forests are home to a variety of wildlife.
ii) Thousands of species of animals, and a large variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammal, birds, insects and worms dwell in the forest.
iii) Tiger is found in various parts of the country and is our national animal. Gir forests in Gujarat are found lion, elephants, camels, etc.
iv) India is rich in bird life too. Peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, bulbul, etc.
v) Projects like Project Tiger and Project Elephant have been launched to protect wildlife.