Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 8

Class 8 : Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev

The document Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 8 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

Industry:

Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).

Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Industry.

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES:

Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.

Raw Materials: Industries may be agro based, mineral based, marine based and forest based depending on the type of raw materials they use.

Agro Based Industries: Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.

Mineral Based Industries: Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. 

Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Mineral-based industries.

This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.

Marine Based Industries: Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.

Forest Based Industries: Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.

Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production. Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries. Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry. Small scale industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries that produce large volumes of products. Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries. Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries. Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.

Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Marine-based industries.Ownership: Industries can be classified into private sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.

Private Sector: Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.

Joint Sector: Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.

Co-operative: Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success stories of a co-operative venture.

FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market. Industries are situate d where some or all of these factors are easily available. Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidised power, lower transport cost and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas. Industrialisation often leads to development and growth of towns and cities.

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products. The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing.

INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia. Major industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields.

India has several industrial regions like Mumbai- Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.

DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES

The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry. The iron and steel and textile industry are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry.

The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The major hubs of Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.

Iron and Steel Industry

Like other industries iron and steel industry too comprises various inputs, processes and outputs. This is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries. The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. It is then refined. The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as raw material.

Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire. Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.

Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles you use are made from steel.

COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Weaving cloth from yarn is an ancient art. Cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax have been used for making cloth. The textile industry can be divided on the basis of raw materials used in them. Fibres are the raw material of textile industry. Fibres can be natural or man-made. Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute. Man made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)

The information technology industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information. Today, this industry has become global. This is due to a series of technological, political, and socio-economic events. The main factors guiding the location of these industries are resource availability, cost and infrastructure. The major hubs of the IT industry are the Silicon Valley, California and Bangalore, India.

Industries  

• Secondary activities are those activities which change raw materials into products of more value of people.  

• Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.  

• Raw Material: Industris under this are of agro-based, mineral-based marine-based and forest-based.  

Chapter Notes (Part - 1) - Industries Class 8 Notes | EduRev  

 

Size of Industries:  

(i) Size refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.  

(ii) Industries based on size are classified into small scale and large scale industries.  

Small Scale Industries:  

i) Small scale industries manufacture products by hand and include cottage and household industry. These industries use lesser amount of capital and technology.  

ii) For example, Basket-weaving, pottery and other handicraft industries.  

Large Scale Industries:  

(i) Large scale industries produce large volumes of products. The investment of capital is higher and technology is superior.  

ii) For example, production of automobiles and heavy machinery.  

Ownership: On the basis of ownership, industries can be classified into the following  

sectors: (a)Private sector, (b)Public sector or state owned, (c)Joint sector, (d)Cooperative sector.  

Private Sector Industries:  

(i) Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example, Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd., Indian Oil Cooperation.  

(ii) Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government. For example, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.  

• Joint Sector Industries: Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. For example: Maruti Udyog Limited.  

• Cooperative Sector Industies: These industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. For example: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy.  

Factors Affecting Location of Industries:  

i) The availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market are the factors and market are the factor affecting the location of industries.  

(ii) Industrialization leads to development and growth of towns and cities.  

Industrial System:  

(i) An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs.  

(ii) Raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure are the inputs.  

(iii) The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw materials into finished products.  

(iv) The result or the outputs are the end of product and income earned from it. 

Industrial Regions:  

i) Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness.  

ii) Major instrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal-fields.  

iii) Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and Central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia.

iv) In India the industrial regions are Mumbai-Pune cluster, Banglore-Tamil Naduregion, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, etc.  

Distribution of Major Industries:  

(i) The iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry are world’s major industries.  

(ii) Iron and steel industries are located in Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia.  

(iii) Textile industries are locate in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.  

(iv) The Silicon valley of Central California and Bangaluru region of India are the major hubs of information technology industry.  

Iron and Steel Industry:  

(i) Iron and steel industry comprises various inputs, processes and outputs and it is a mineral-based industry.  

(ii) Inputs in this industry include raw materials such as iron ore, core and limestone, labour, capital and other infrastructure. In processing iron ore is converted into steel by undergoing different stages like smelting, refining. Output results obtained is the steel.  

(iii) Steel is called the backbone of modern industry as almost everything is made of iron and steel.  

(iv) In India, iron and steel industry has developed taking advantages of raw materials, cheep labour, transport and market.  

(v) Major steel producing centres in India are-Bhilai, Durgapur, Bumpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro and is spread over four states-West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chattisgarh.  

Information Technology (IT)  

(i) Information technology industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information.  

(ii) The main factors guiding the location of these industries are resource availability, cost and infrastructure.  

(iii) The major hurbs of the IT industry are the Silicon Valley, California and Benguluru in India.  

(iv) Benguluru is known as ‘Silicon Plateau’.  

(v) IT hubs in metropolitian centres of India are Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai.


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