FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market. Industries are situate d where some or all of these factors are easily available. Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidised power, lower transport cost and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas. Industrialisation often leads to development and growth of towns and cities.
An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products. The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing.
Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia. Major industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields.
India has several industrial regions like Mumbai- Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.
DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES
The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry. The iron and steel and textile industry are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry.
The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The major hubs of Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.
Iron and Steel Industry
Like other industries iron and steel industry too comprises various inputs, processes and outputs. This is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries. The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. It is then refined. The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as raw material.
Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire. Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.
Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles you use are made from steel.
COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Weaving cloth from yarn is an ancient art. Cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax have been used for making cloth. The textile industry can be divided on the basis of raw materials used in them. Fibres are the raw material of textile industry. Fibres can be natural or man-made. Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute. Man made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)
The information technology industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information. Today, this industry has become global. This is due to a series of technological, political, and socio-economic events. The main factors guiding the location of these industries are resource availability, cost and infrastructure. The major hubs of the IT industry are the Silicon Valley, California and Bangalore, India.