Light is a form of energy, which induces the sensation of vision in our eyes and makes us able to see various things present in our surrounding. The light ray may be objects self-light or reflected light.
Luminous objects are objects which emit light of their own.
Example: Sun, bulb, tubelight
Non-luminous objects are objects which reflect light from other sources. They do not emit light of their own.
Example: Moon, tree, table, painting.
LAWS OF REFLECTION
After striking the mirror, the ray of light is reflected in another direction. The light ray, which strikes any surface, is called the incident ray. The ray that comes back from the surface after reflection is known as the reflected ray. The ‘normal’ is a line drawn at right angles to the mirror surface at the point of incidence. The angle between incident ray and normal is called the angle of incidence. The angle between reflected ray and normal is called the angle of reflection.
The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal (at the point of incidence), all lie in the same plane.
The angle of reflection is always equal to the angle of incidence.
REGULAR AND DIFFUSED REFLECTION
When all the parallel rays reflected from a plane surface are not parallel, the reflection is known as diffused or irregular reflection. The diffused reflection is not due to the failure of the laws of reflection. It is caused by the irregularities in the reflecting surface, like that of a cardboard. On the other hand reflection from a smooth surface like that of a mirror is called regular reflection. Images are formed by regular reflection.
A kaleidoscope is a tube of mirrors containing loose coloured beads, pebbles or other small coloured objects. The viewer looks in one end and light enters the other end, reflecting off the mirrors. Typically there are two rectangular lengthwise mirrors. Setting of the mirrors at 45° creates eight duplicate images of the objects, six at 60°, and four at 90°. As the tube is rotated, the tumbling of the coloured objects presents the viewer with varying colours and patterns. A kaleidoscopic point is a point of intersection of two or more lines of reflection symmetry.
We see things only when light coming from them enters our eyes. Eye is one of our most important sense organs.
The eye has a roughly spherical shape. Outer coat of the eye is white. It is tough so that it can protect the interior of the eye from accidents. Its transparent front part is called cornea. Behind the cornea, we find a dark muscular structure called iris. In the iris, there is a small opening called the pupil. The size of the pupil is controlled by the iris. The iris is the part of that eye which gives it its distinctive colour. When we say that a person has green eyes, we refer actually to the colour of the iris. The iris controls the amount of light entering into the eye.
Behind the pupil of the eye is a lens which is thicker in the centre. The lens focuses light on the back of the eye, on a layer called retina. Retina contains several nerve cells. Sensations felt by the nerve cells are then transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve.
There are two kinds of cells
(i) Cones, which are sensitive to bright light and
(ii) Rods, which are sensitive to dim light.
Besides, cones sense colour. At the junction of the optic nerve and the retina, there are no sensory cells, so no vision is possible at that spot. This is called the blind spot.
The impression of an image does not vanish immediately from the retina. It persists there for about 1/16th of a second. So, if still images of a moving object are flashed on the eye at a rate faster than 16 per second, then the eye perceives this object as moving.
CARE OF EYES
1. It is necessary that we take proper care of our eyes. If there is any problem we should go to an eye specialist. Have a regular checkup. If advised, use suitable spectacles.
2. Too little or too much light is bad for eyes. Insufficient light causes eyestrain and headaches. Too much light, like that of the sun, a powerful lamp or a laser torch can injure the retina. Do not look at the sun or a powerful light directly.
3. Never rub eyes. If particles of dust go into eyes, wash eyes with clean water. If there is no improvement go to a doctor. Wash eyes frequently with clean water.
4. Always read at the normal distance for vision. Do not read by bringing book too close to eyes or keeping it too far.
5. Lack of vitamin A in foodstuff is responsible for many eye troubles. Most common amongst them is night blindness. One should, therefore, include in the diet components which have vitamin A. Raw carrots, broccoli and green vegetables (such as spinach) and cod liver oil are rich in vitamin A. Eggs, milk, curd, cheese, butter and fruits such as papaya and mango are also rich in vitamin A.
Visually Challenged Persons Can Read and Write
Some persons, including children, can be visually handicapped. They have very limited vision to see things. Some persons cannot see at all since birth. Some persons may lose their eyesight because of a disease. Such persons try to identify things by touching and listening to voices more carefully. They develop their other senses more sharply.
However, additional resources can enable them to develop their capabilities further.
The most popular resource for visually challenged persons is known as Braille. The present system was adopted in 1932. There is Braille code for common languages, mathematics and scientific notation. Many Indian languages can be read using the Braille system. Visually challenged people learn the Braille system by beginning with letters, then special characters and letter combinations. Methods depend upon recognition by touching. Each character has to be memorised. Braille texts can be produced by hand or by machine. Type writer - like devices and printing machines have now been developed.