CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
1. Features OF Industrialisation
- Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features with industry, such as urbanisation, loss of face-to-face relationships.
- Industrialisation involves a detailed division of labor.
- Marx called this situation alienation, when people do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do in order to survive, and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any human labor.
- Industrialisation leads to greater equality, in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do not matter anymore on trains, buses or in cyber cafes.
- In developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures).
- In developing countries like India, nearly 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.)
2. A. Organised or formal Sector
- The organised sector consists of all units employing ten or more people throughout the year.
- registered with the government.
- Jobs are secure with benefits.
- Recruitment is more transparent
- there are mechanisms for complaints and redressals
B. Unorganised or informal sector
- The units need not be registered with the government,
- employees may not get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits.
- Jobs are not secure.
3. Mixed Economy
In mixed economy, some sectors are reserved for government, while others were open to the private sector.
- Private companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power etc.
- Licenses are no longer required to open industries. Foreign products are now easily available in Indian shops.
- Privatisation of public sector or government companies
- The government is trying to sell its share in several public sector companies. Eg: Modern Foods
6. HOW DO PEOPLE FIND JOBS
- Jobs are advertised-(Times Ascent).
- Through employment exchange
- Personal contacts—self employed plumbers, tutors etc.
- Contractors and jobbers/mistress(Kanpur)
7. A. BADLI WORKERS/CONTRACT WORK IN ORGANISED SECTOR
- badli workers substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave.
- Many of the badli are not given the same status and security.
- This is what is called contract work in the organised sector.
B. CONTRACTOR SYSTEM
- used in the hiring of casual labour for work on construction sites, brickyards and so on.
- The contractor goes to villages to ask people if they want to work.
- the contractor loans them some money, which includes the cost of transport to the worksite.
- The loaned money is treated as an advance wage and the worker works without wages until the loan is repaid.
- In the past agricultural labourers were tied to their landlord by debt.
- They can break the contract and find another employer.
Sometimes, whole families migrate and the children help their parents
8. HOW IS WORK CARRIED OUT
Task of manager
- Control workers
- Get more work out of workers
WAYS OF MAKING WORKER PRODUCE MORE
- Extend the working hours
- Increase the amount to be produced within a given time period
- Organising work
- Production is speeded up through ‘Scientific Management’ and “assembly line”.
9. Scientific Management” or ‘Taylorism’
- An American called Frederick Winslow Taylor invented the “Scientific management” in the 1890s, also known as Taylorism or industrial engineering.
- all work is broken down into its smallest repetitive elements, and divided between workers.
- Workers are timed with the help of stopwatches
- Workers are made to fulfill a certain target every day .
10. A “Assembly line” production?
- Each worker sits along a conveyor belt
- Worker assembles only one part of the final product.
- The speed of work is set by adjusting the speed of the conveyor belt.
B. Use of machinery actually deskills workers.
- The famous sociologist Harry Braverman argues that the use of machinery actually deskills Workers.
- For example, earlier architects and engineers had to be skilled draughtsmen, now the computer does a lot of the work for them.
11. SERVICES SECTOR
Software professionals are middle class and well educated. Their work is supposed to be self- motivated and creative.
12. Working conditions of coal miners.
- Sub-contracting is widespread.
- Many contractors do not maintain proper registers of workers,
- They avoid any responsibility for accidents and benefits.
- After mining has finished in an area, the company is supposed to cover up the open holes and restore the area to its earlier condition. But they don’t do this.
13. Dangers faced by coal miners
Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions,
- due to flooding,
- the collapse of roofs and sides,
- the emission of gases and.
- ventilation failures.
- Many workers develop breathing problems, diseases like tuberculosis and silicosis.
- Those working in overground mines work in both hot sun and rain, and face injuries due to mine blasting, falling objects, etc.
- Thus, the rate of mining accidents in India is very high compared to other countries.
14. HOME-BASED WORK
- important part of the economy.
- It includes the manufacture of lace, zari or brocade, carpets, bidis, agarbattis, and many such products.
- work is mainly done by women and children.
- An agent provides raw materials and also picks up the finished product.
- Home workers are paid on a piece-rate basis, depending on the number of pieces they make.
- For e.g.: the bidi industry.
15. A. STRIKE
- In a strike, workers do not go to work,
- To call a strike is a difficult decision as managers may try to use substitute labor.
- Workers also find it hard to sustain themselves without wages.
- In a lock-out, the management shuts the gate and prevents workers from coming.
16. Two demands of the workers in the Bombay Mill Strike.
- The Bombay Textile strike of 1982 was led by the trade union leader, Dr. Datta Samant.
- The strike lasted nearly two years.
- The workers wanted better wages and the right to form their own union
17. Basic features of capitalism
- Means of production are privately owned.
- To accumulate profits.
- Earn more profits by paying less to workers.