1. Cultural changes during colonialism rule can be understood at two levels-
- efforts of social reformers and nationalists
- Indirect -the influence of four processes- Sanskritisation, modernization, secularisation and westernization.
2. MODERN FRAMEWORK OF CHANGE IN COLONIAL INDIA according to Sociologist Satish Saberwal
3. Sanskritisation (term coined by M.N. Srinivas) is a process by which some members of a low caste or tribe try to imitate/follow, the customs, rituals, beliefs, ideology and lifestyle of a high, in particular ‘twice born’(dwija) caste.
4. De-sanskritisation is the process where influence of non- Sanskritic castes was found to be dominant instead of high castes.
5. Sanskritisation has been criticised at different levels.
- No structural change only positional change for some individual.
- Assumption of upper castes as being superior hence to be imitated
- justification of the practice of inequality & exclusion as marked privileges of upper castes hence a discriminatory system.
- the process that is gendered- though progressive for men, upper caste practices like purdah system, low age of marriage , dowry in place of bride price are regressive as far as women are concerned.
- Erosion of Dalit culture would be an expected outcome
6. Assertion of Dalit identities in recent years & backward classes movement leading to rejection of upper caste culture.
- M.N. Srinivas defines Westernization as the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of British rule, changes occurring in technology, institutions, ideology and values. He believed as lower castes sanskritised, the upper caste westernized by considering the British colonialists as reference group.
- Different kinds of westernization
- Emergence of a westernized sub-cultural pattern brought forward by the western educated middle class
- General spread of western cultural traits in the fields of food and eating habits, clothes and life-styles due working or serving the british colonialists over a long period.
- Impact of westernization can be seen in the fields of art, literature, music, architecture etc.
8. Modernization refers to improvement in technology, production processes; path of development taken by much of West Europe or North America.
- Modernisation assumes that local ties and parochial perspective give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan attitudes
- a scientific and rational approach develops
- work is based on achievement not birth individualism is encouraged
9. Secularisation - In the west - modernization seems to have led to secularization
- a process of decline in the influence of religion, especially in the public sphere.
10. Rituals have secular dimensions - it provides occasion to socialize with friends and kin, to show off wealth and style to enhance social status.
11. Secularisation of caste
- formation of caste based associations and political parties
- seeking votes and fielding candidates on caste lines -assertion of rights, by caste-based organisations