Chapter Notes - Cultural Changes Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Cultural Changes Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Chapter Notes - Cultural Changes Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Sociology Class 12.
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CULTURAL CHANGES

1. Cultural changes during colonialism rule can be understood at two levels-

  • efforts of social reformers and nationalists
  • Indirect -the influence of four processes- Sanskritisation, modernization, secularisation and westernization.

2. MODERN FRAMEWORK OF CHANGE IN COLONIAL INDIA according to Sociologist Satish Saberwal

Chapter Notes - Cultural Changes Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

3. Sanskritisation (term coined by M.N. Srinivas) is a process by which some members of a low caste or tribe try to imitate/follow, the customs, rituals, beliefs, ideology and lifestyle of a high, in particular ‘twice born’(dwija) caste.

4. De-sanskritisation is the process where influence of non- Sanskritic castes was found to be dominant instead of high castes.

5. Sanskritisation has been criticised at different levels.

  • No structural change only positional change for some individual.
  • Assumption of upper castes as being superior hence to be imitated
  • justification of the practice of inequality & exclusion as marked privileges of upper castes hence a discriminatory system.
  • the process that is gendered- though progressive for men, upper caste  practices like purdah system, low age of marriage , dowry in place of  bride price are regressive as far as women are concerned.
  • Erosion of Dalit culture would be an expected outcome

6. Assertion of Dalit identities in recent years & backward classes movement leading to rejection of upper caste culture.

7. Westernisation

  1. M.N. Srinivas defines Westernization as the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of British rule, changes occurring in technology, institutions, ideology and values. He believed as lower castes sanskritised, the upper caste westernized by considering the British colonialists as reference group.
  2. Different kinds of westernization
    • Emergence of a westernized sub-cultural pattern brought forward by the western educated middle class
    • General spread of western cultural traits in the fields of food and eating habits, clothes and life-styles due working or serving the british colonialists over a long period.
    • Impact of westernization can be seen in the fields of art, literature, music, architecture etc.

8. Modernization refers to improvement in technology, production processes; path of development taken by much of West Europe or North America.

  • Modernisation assumes that local ties and parochial perspective give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan attitudes
  • a scientific and rational approach develops
  • work is based on achievement not birth individualism is encouraged

9. Secularisation - In the west - modernization seems to have led to secularization
- a process of decline in the influence of religion, especially in the public sphere.

10. Rituals have secular dimensions - it provides occasion to socialize with friends and kin, to show off wealth and style to enhance social status.

11. Secularisation of caste

  • formation of caste based associations and political parties
  • seeking votes and fielding candidates on caste lines -assertion of rights, by caste-based organisations
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