1. A Story from Mexico Olympics : (i) Racial discrimination in United States
(ii) Civil Rights Movement
(iii) Olympics in Mexico 1968- Protest by US Athletes, winner of gold and bronze medals, to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States
(iv) An Australian silver medalist Peter Norman to support the two Americans
(v) Action by International Olympic Association.
2. Differences, similarities, divisions : (i) Origins of social differences
(b) Choice - atheists or following any religion, study, occupation
(c) Different social groups - differences and similarities within it
(iii) Overlapping and cross-cutting differences
(a) Northern Ireland - Catholic to be poor
(b) Netherlands - Catholic and Protestants equally to be poor and rich
(c) Overlapping and social divisions but crosscutting and accommodation.
3. Polities of Social Divisions : (i) Political parties’ competition can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflicts, violence, even disintegration -
(ii) Range of outcomes
(a) Northern Ireland - years of violent and bitter-ethnopolitical conflict
(b) 1998 and peace
(c) Yugoslavia and disintegration
(iii) To avoid mixture of social divisions and politics
(iv) But not so in every case
(v) Social divisions reflection in politics - promises, effect on voting, preference for one party or other and no disintegration.
4. Three Determinants - Outcome of Politics of Social Divisions :
(a) Three factors
(1) How people perceive their identities, examples of Ireland and Belgium
(2) How political leaders raise their demand of any community : Examples of Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia
(3) Govt.’s reaction to demands : Example of Belgium accommodation and unity
(b) In democracy expression of social divisions - normal and healthy.