Chapter Notes - History From Gathering to Growing Food
The Beginning of Food Produce:
(i) As climate of the world changed man observed several things - areas where edible plants were found, how seeds broke off stalks, fell on the ground and how new plants sprouted from them.
ii) Man started cultivating crops.
iii) The first crops to be grown were cereal and barley.
iv) This is how by use of sickle men became food producers or farmers.
v) Agriculture changed the life of man. They started leading a settled life.
Men as Herders:
(i) Humans even began to tame or domesticate animals like dog, horse, pig, goat, donkey, sheep, etc.
(ii) The first animal to be tamed was dog.
(iii) Animals provided milk, meat and even carried burden on their back.
Fig: Men as herders
Human as Inventors of Wheel:
i) The revolution in early man’s life came with the invention of wheel.
ii) Wheel transformed man’s life.
iii) Travelling and carrying heavy objects from one place to another place became faster.
How was Invention of Pottery Important:
(i) Man learnt to make clay pottery shaped by hand backed in fire.
(ii) Potter’s wheel helped them to make pots of different shapes and sizes.
Fig: Potter's wheelHow do we know about Farmers and Herders:
(i) Archaeologists have found many traces of life of early farmers.
(ii) Traces of farmers and herders were available through traces of pottery, pit houses, tools, paintings and daily life.
(iii) Traces were found in Mehrgarh, Burzahom at North-Eastern parts of India etc.
The Chalicolithic Age:
i) It was around 6,000 years back that man started using copper.
ii) Tools of copper were better than that of stone.
iii) It was also called the Copper Stone Age.
iv) It marked an important transition from use of stones to metals.
The North-West Mehrgarh:
(i) The earliest known civilization of the Indian subcontinent was in Mehrgarh (now Pakistan).
(ii) It was here that man first tamed animals and reared them around 7,000 BC.
(iii) Charred grains and bones of animals were found here.
(iv) Glazed faience beads were made.
(i) Evidence of early settlements were found in Manipur, Tripura, Garo Hills.
(ii) One important Neolithic site in Assam was Daojali Hading. Traces of polished stone tools, ceramics and kitchen items were found here.