East India Company comes East:
(i) In 1600 royal charter granted to East India Company granted the sole right to trade with the East.
(ii) East India Company bought goods at a cheap price and sold them at higher price in Europe.
(iii) Cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
(iv) Pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon were in great demand.
Fig: East India CompanyEast India Company begins Trade in Bengal:
(i) In 1651, the first English factory was set up on the banks of river Hugli.
(ii) Aurangzeb issued a Farman granting the company the right to trade duty-free.
(iii) The company tried to press for more concessions and manipulate existing privileges.
How did Trade Lead to Battles:
(i) After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal Nawabs asserted their power and autonomy.(ii) The Nawabs of Bengal refused to grant the company concessions.
The Battle of Plassey:
(i) On 23rd June 1757, Battle of Plassey was fought and was the first major victory of English in India.
(ii) Alivardi Khan died in 1756 and Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab of Bengal.
(iii) In 1757, Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Siraj-ud-dulah at Plassey.
(iv) Main reason for defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of Siraj-ud-daulah’s commanders, never fought the battle.
(v) Mir Jafar was promised by Clive to be made Nawab after crushing Siraj-ud-daulah.
Fig: Battle of Plassey
The Battle of Buxar:
(i) After the defeat at Plassey, Siraj-ud-daulah was assassinated and Mir Jafar was made the Nawab.
(ii) Mir Jafar was just a puppet in the hands of Britishers.
(iii) In 1764, the battle of Buxar was fought between Britishers and Mir Qasim.
(iv) In 1765 Mir Jafar died.
(v) In 1765, the Mughal emperor appointed the company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal.
Fig: Battle of Buxar
Company Officials become ‘Nabobs’:
(i) In 1764, Robert Clive was appointed Governor of Bengal.
(ii) ‘Nabobs’-an anglicized version of the Indian word Nawab.
Company Rule Expands:
(i) The process of annexation of Indian states by the East India Company from 1757 to 1857 brought forth some key aspects like the company rarely launched a direct military attack on as unknown territory.
(ii) After battle of Buxar, the company appointed residents in Indian states.
(iii) The company forced the states into a ‘subsidiary alliance’.
(iv) The Nawab of Awadh and the Nizam of Hyderabad were forced to cede territories and accept the subsidiary alliances.
Tipu Sultan-‘The Tiger of Mysore’:
Fig: Tipu Sultan: Tiger of Mysore
(i) Tipu Sultan was the son of Haidar Ali, ruler of Mysore.
(ii) Tipu Sultan ruled Mysore from 1782 to 1799.
(iii) Four wars were fought between Britishers and Mysore and were known as the Anglo- Mysore wars(1767-1769, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799).
(iv) In 1799, the Britishers won the battle of Seringapatam against Mysore.
(v) Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital Seringapatam.