Chapter Notes - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

Created by: Uk Tiwary

Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Chapter Notes - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Geography Class 12.
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GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE ON SELECTED ISSUES AND PROBLEMS

POLLUTION It is the unwanted matter and energy in the environment which harms to the man

Types of pollution:

1. Air pollution

2. Water pollution

3.land pollution

4.noise pollution

Chapter Notes - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Chapter Notes - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

SOURCES OF POLLUTION IN THE GANGA AND YAMUNA

Chapter Notes - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

CASE STUDY- DHARVI THE ASIA‟S LARGEST SLUM FEATURES
 There is only one road about 90 feet
 Narrow streets, one toilet for every 1440 people
 Two/three stored buildings with rusty iron gates
 Single room for 12 people
 Tree less sunlight uncollected garbage
 Stagnant pools, fowl water,
 Zari work ,pottery, wood carving , scheduled caste people
 Poor Muslims, treatment of hides and tanning

URBAN WASTE DISPOSAL

Overcrowding , congestion, inadequate facilities, poor sanitary conditions, significant quantity of solid waste Pieces of metals, polythene bags , broken glass ware plastic containers ashes garbage and CDs make solid waste

SOURCES OF URBAN WASTE
1. House hold establishments : thrown in public lands, private contractors sites
2. Industrial establishments : thrown in low lying public grounds

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE
1. Health hazard due to obnoxious smell, flies and rodents
2. Disease like typhoid, diphtheria diarrhea malaria cholera
3. they are spitted through rain water
4. industrial waste dumping in the rivers cause water pollution ex. Ganga , Yamuna

CASE STUDY- DAURALA
1. Meerut based NGO developed a model for ecological restoration
2. The ground water was contaminated with industrial waste
3. Ngo collected the data about the health conditions of the locality

STEPS TAKEN 

1.overhaead tank capacity was increased

2.ponds were cleaned

3.silt was removed

4. Rain water harvesting structures were made

5.1000 trees have been planted

RURAL –URBAN MIGRATION REASONS
1. Demand for labour in urban areas
2. Low job opportunities in rural areas
3. Un development of rural areas
4. People migrate to bigger cities

PROBLEMS OF SLUM AREA
1. Least choice
2. Dilapidated houses
3. Poor hygienic conditions
4. poor ventilation
5. Lack of drinking water, light , toilet facilities
6. over crowded , narrow streets, low paid workers
7. Prone to diseases, alcoholism, vandalism ,apathy, social exclusion
 

LAND DEGRADATION CAUSES

1. Pressure on agriculture

2. Increase in population density

3. Faulty methods of agriculture

4. Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides

5.Indiscriminate cutting of trees,

6. Heavy rains ,

7. Floods
 

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE LAND BY NRSA USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES
1. CAUSED BYNATURAL AGENTS
Gullies, ravenous land, deserted , coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, glacial areas
2. CAUSED BY NATURAL ASWELL AS HUMAN FACTORS
Waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity , land with or without scrub
3. CAUSED BY HUMAN ACTIONS
Degraded shifting cultivated areas, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, mining and industrial waste lands

CASE STUDY- ECOLOGICAL BALANCE REASONS
1. Westernmost climatic zone in MP.
2. One of the five backward districts of the country
3. High concentration of Bhills
4. suffer from poverty
5. Most degraded land
 

OBJECTIVES
1. Start watershed development programme
2. Link of water , land, vegetation
3. Natural resource management
4. Increase common property resources
5. Each family should plant one tree at least
6. Planted fodder grass
7. Social fencing
8. Stop open grazing land
9. Stopping the common property resources by govt.

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTELAND BY PROCESS
1. Barren and uncultivated wasteland 2.18%
2. Natural degraded common waste land 2.4%
3. Natural man made common waste land 7.51%
4. Man made degraded common waste land 5.88%
5. Total degraded land 15.8%

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