HUMAN DEVELOPMENT GROWTH:
♦ it is the quantitative
♦ and value neutral,
♦ it may be positive, or negative,
♦ ex. Density of population, total population
♦ qualitative change
♦ always positive,
♦ an addition to the present condition,
♦ Ex. Per-capita income facilities
The concept of human development was introduced by DR. Mahbubul Haq : development that enlarges people‟s choices and improves their lives. People can live meaningful life. Life with some purpose, people must be healthy, develop their talents, The four pillars of human development
♦ EQUITY: equal opportunities available to everybody. Irrespective of gender, race, income ( in case of India women and low caste people drop out the school is more)
♦ SUSTAINABILITY: continuity in availability of resources, each generation must have opportunities,
♦ PRODUCTIVITY: productivity in terms of labor productivity, it should be constantly enriched.
♦ EMPOWERMENT: to have power to make decisions. Increasing freedom and capability, good governance, and govt. policies.
APPROACHES TO HUMANDEVELOPMENT
A. INCOME APPROACH:
oldest method, level of income leads to development
B. WELFARE APPROACH:
higher the expenditure on education, health, and other amenities by the government.
C. BASIC NEEDS APPROACH: it was introduced by ILO -SIX BASIC NEEDS
6. HOUSING to be given importance
D. CAPABILITY APPROACH : associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Access to education and health facilities.
♦ Size of the country and per-capita income are not directly related to human development. Like SRILANKA AND TRINIDAD HAVE HIGHER HDI THAN INDIA
♦ THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS
♦ HIGH -ABOVE 0.8 :57 COUNTRIES
♦ MEDIUM – 0.5-0.799 :88 COUNTRIES
♦ LOW - BELOW 0.5 :32 COUNTRIES
♦ COUNTRIES WITH HIGH INDEX VALUE: NORWAY, ICELAND, AUSTRALIA education and health care are priorities for the government.
♦ COUNTRIES WITH MEDIUM INDEX: it consists of large group, emerged after second world war, adopting people oriented policies.
♦ COUNTRIES WITH LOW INDEX VALUE: large number of these countries are very small . political turmoil, social instability, civil war, high incidence of diseases.