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Chapter Notes - Human Settlements Notes | Study NCERT Textbooks in Hindi (Class 6 to Class 12) - UPSC

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Human Settlements

Classification of settlements

Rural settlements

Urban settlements Patterns of settlements
1. Compact or nucleated settlements
2. Dispersed settlements

Factors affecting Rural Settlements
1. Water supply
2. Land
3. Upland,
4. Building material
5. Defense

Planned Settlements
1. Constructed by government
2. Provide shelter, water and drainage facilities
3. Provide infrastructure facilities
4. Ex .villagisation in Ethiopia ,Rajasthan canal in India

Rural Settlements Pattern
 I. Based on Setting

1. Plain village,
2.plateau villages
3. Coastal villages
4. Forest villages
5. Desert villages

II. Based on Function
1. Farming,
2 fisherman villages,
3.lumber jack villages
4.pastoral villages

III Based on Shape
1. Linear
2 Rectangular
3 Circular
4.Star Shaped
5 T-Shaped
6.Double Village
7. Cross Shaped Village

Problems of Rural Settlement
1. Lack of infrastructure
2. Supply of water
3.road facility
4. Waterborne diseases
5.drough and flood
6.absence of toilet and garbage disposal
7: lack of ventilation
8. Lack of health facilities and education

Urban Settlements

  • The first city reached one million was London by 1810
  • By 1982 there were 175 countries reached one million population
  • 48 % of population lives in Urban settlements

Classification of Urban Settlements

Population Size 

Criteria for urban centers in various countries

  • 1500 in Columbia
  • 2000 in Argentina &Portugal
  • 2500 in USA and Thailand
  • 5000 in India
  • 30,000 in Japan
  • Density is more than 400 persons /sq km
  • More than 75% of people work in other than primary occupation
  • 250 persons /sq km in Sweden and Denmark Finland
  • 300 in Iceland 1000 in Canada and Venezuela

Administration

Municipality, cantonment board, notified area council in India is considered as urban center Latin America all administrative centers are urban centers

Location
1.  Military center,
2.  Seaport
3.  Strategic towns,
4.  mining towns,
5.  Tourist towns
6.  Recreational town,
7.  Educational towns
8.  industrial towns
9.  administrative town
10.commercial towns

Classification of Towns on the Basis of Forms
1. Linear,
2. Square,
3 square

4. Crescent
5. Planned cities

Ex. Addis Ababa ( The New Flower), Canberra 

Town: enlarged villages manufacturing, retail, wholesale, professional services
City: it is a leading town, greater number of functions, transport terminals, major financial institutions, regional administrative offices
 Conurbation: coined by PATRICK GEDDES in 1915 . merging number of towns / cities ex. London, Manchester, Chicago ,Tokyo
Megalopolis
Jean Guttmann : super metropolitan region it is a union of conurbations ex Boston to Washington Million city: London is the first town to reach one million in 1800 followed by Paris in 1850, new York 1860, 1950 there were 80 cities 438 in 2005

Distribution of Megacities

Pop. More than 10 million , New York is the first to attain this status in 1950 with pop 12.5 million There are 25 megacities at present.

Problems of Human Settlement in Developing Cities
1. Unsustainable concentration of population
2. Congested housing and streets
3. Lack of drinking water
4. Lack of electricity, sewage disposal health and education facilities
5. Lack of transport facilities
6. Health and education facilities
7. Water and air pollution

Problems of Urban Settlements

I .Economic Settlements
1. Decreasing employment
2. Pool of semiskilled labour
3. Saturated employment opportunities
 II Socio Cultural Problems

1. Lack of health and educational facilities,
2.Transport facilities
3.Unbalanced sex ratio,
4.Social ills,
5.Insufficient financial Resources,
6.Lack of basic needs

III Environmental Problem

1.Lack of urban waste disposal,
2.Lack of potable water,
3.Improper sewerage facilities
4.Create heat islands,
5 Air pollution, water pollution, Noise pollution

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