Chapter Notes - India Population, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - India Population, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

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POPULATION: DISTRIBUTION, DENSITY, GROWTH, AND COMPOSITION 

Distribution of population
1. The population is distributed unevenly
2. UP has the highest population followed by MS BIHAR, WB, AP
3. MS, UP, BI, WB, AP TN MP RAJ KK GUJ account for 76% of the population
4. Arunachal Pradesh 0.11% Uttaranchal 0.83%

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
1. PHYSICAL FACTORS: climate, water, terrain, transport,
2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS: Settled Agriculture. Agri. develop. the pattern of human settlements, dev. Of transport, industries, urbanization
3. HISTORICAL FACTORS: development of cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai by British

DENSITY OF POPULATION
⇒ Number of persons per unit area
⇒ The density of population (2001) is 313/ sq km.
⇒ Lowest in Arunachal Pradesh: 13/ per sq km NCT: 9340
⇒ WB; 903 BIHAR: 880
⇒ Himalayan states and North East have low density whereas Ganga plain has the highest density and other states have a moderate population
 Physiological density= total population / net cultivated area
 Agricultural density= total agricultural population / net cultivated area

GROWTH OF POPULATION 

Change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time.

It is expressed in % Two components : 

1. Natural

2. Induced natural growth is analyzed by crude birth rate and crude death rate Induced growth is calculated with the immigration –outmigration The annual growth is 2.4 %. in36 years its population will be doubled STAGES OF POPULATION GROWTH

Stage I: 1901 -1921 stagnant growth, slow growth rate, BR & DR were high, poor medical facilities, low literacy rate, inefficient distribution of food and basic facilities

STAGE II 1921-51: steady growth, improvement in health and sanitation low mortality rate. better transport facilities, high birth rate, and decline death rate. The influence of world war and Economic depression influenced

STAGE III: 1951-81: Population explosion, rapid fall in mortality rate, high fertility rate, an introduction of five-year plans, improvement of living condition, increased migration,

STAGE IV 1981 onwards: growth rate declined, the crude birth rate declined due to increasing marriage age, improved quality of life& education.

REGIONAL VARIATION IN POPULATION GROWTH

It is less than 20% in southern states. It is high in northwest central and northeastern states. The adolescents % is 22% male 53% female 47% Features of adolescents population: high potential, quite vulnerable

CHALLENGES FACED BY ADOLESCENCE
1. Lower age at marriage
2. Illiteracy
3. Female illiteracy
4.school dropouts
5.low intake of nutrients
6. high rate of maternal mortality of adolescent mothers,
7. A high rate of HIV AIDS
8. Physical and mental disability
9.drug abuse alcoholism
10 juvenile delinquency
11. Crime Steps were taken by the government to channelize the adults

  • National youth policy
  • Encourage the youth for constructive development of the society
  • Improve patriotism and responsible citizens
  • Youth empowerment
  • Giving importance for youth health, sports, and recreation
  • Innovation in the field of science

POPULATION COMPOSITION 

1.AGE AND SEX,
2 PLACE OF RESIDENCE
3.ETHNIC CHARACTERISTICS
4. TRIBES
5. LANGUAGE
6.RELIGION
7.MARITAL STATUS
8.LITERACY
9. EDUCATION
10 OCCUPATION

RURAL-URBAN COMPOSITION

1. 72% lives in villages
2. India has 638588 villages according to the 2001 census
3. The state of Bihar and Sikkim have very high % of the rural population
4. Goa and Maharashtra have a low rural population
5. UT s have low rural population except for DDNH The size of villages varies from
6. In India Rajasthan, it is less than 200 persons
7. it is more than 17thousand persons in Kerala
Urban population It is equal to 27.8% it is quite low
8. It is increased due to economic development, improvement in health, hygienic conditions
9. It is high in the peripheral areas of metropolitan cities

LINGUISTIC COMPOSITION
1. According to Grierson, there are 179 languages 544 dialects, there are about 22 scheduled languages
2. Hindi speakers are 40.42% the smallest language is Kashmiri 0.01%

LANGUAGE FAMILIES
1. Austric (1.38% ) –Monkhemar – Meghalaya Nicobar, WB,BI,OR,AS,MP ,MS
2. Dravidian (20%) TN, KK, KER, AP, MP, BI, OR,
3. Sino Tibetan(0.85%) J&K HP SK,ARP AS, NAG, MAN,MZ ,TRI ,MEG
4. Indo-European-outside India, J&K PUN HP, UP RAJ HAR, OR, WB AS GUJ MS GOA

RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
⇒ Hindus have distributed all states except Indo Pak border, J&K states
⇒ Muslims are concentrated in j7k WB, KER, UP DELHI LAK,
⇒ Christian pop is concentrated in western coast NE states
⇒ Sikhs are concentrated in NW Indi
⇒ Jains Buddhists are concentrated in RAJ, MS, KK
⇒ Tribes are located in India
⇒ Hindus -80.5% Muslims-13.55 Christians – 2.3% Sikhs 1.9% Buddhists-0.95 Jains-0.45 others-0.6%
⇒ The composition of the working population
⇒ The main worker; work more than 183 days
⇒ Marginal worker: less than 183 days
⇒ 39% worker 61% non-workers
⇒ Large % of the dependent population. The large number is unemployed
⇒ 25% working population in Goa,53% in Mizoram

Occupational categories
1. Cultivators
2. Agricultural laborers
3.house hold industrial workers
4. other workers

SPATIAL VARIATION OF WORKING PARTICIPATION 

1.HP and Nagaland have a high proportion of cultivators
2. AP, CHHTIS, ORI, JHAR, WB high proportion of Ag. Workers
3.in urban centers high proportion of services
4. Non availability of land and presence of industries encourage workers

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