Chapter Notes - International Trade UPSC Notes | EduRev

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INTERNATIONAL TRADE TWO LEVELS NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 

The initial trade was barter system in which goods are exchanged Before currency there were flint stones, obsidian, cowries shells tigers paw, whales teeth dogs teeth skins furs cattle rice pepper corns salt small tools copper silver and gold.

HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
1. Trade was restricted to small distance due to theft
2. People used to satisfy their immediate facilities
3. Only rich people used to bring jewellary and other ornaments
4. The silk route is an example connecting with china and Rome
5. Wool silk precious stones; were trade
6. After Rome disintegration it was not given importance
7. The slave trade was started with the colonization
8. After industrial revolution raw material and finished products are given importance
9. During world wars many countries imposed taxes
10. After the world war GATT was formed

WHY DOES INTERNATIONAL TRADE EXIST
1. Specialization in production

2. Division of labor

3. Comparative advantage

4. Complementarily and transferability of goods, services

5. Mutual benefit

6.foreign policy

7.developed transport and communication

BASIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

1. DIFFERENCE IN NATIONAL RESOURCES
A. Geological structure
B. Mineral resources
C. Climate

2. Population factors
a. Cultural factors
b. Size of population

3. Stage of economic development
4. Extent of foreign investment
5. Transport

IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF INTRNATIONAL TRADE
1. Volume of trade
2. Composition of trade
3. Direction of trade
4. Balance of trade

TYPES OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
1. Bilateral trade
2. Multilateral trade

CASE FOR FREE TRADE DUMPED GOODS WTO

  • GATT was formed in1948
  • The GATT was transformed in to WTO on 1.1.1995
  • It maintains the global rules between the nations
  • It resolves the disputes between the nations related to trade
  • It covers trade services, telecommunication and banking, intellectual rights
  • It gives importance to rich nations
  • It is not favour to poor nations

REGIONAL TRADE BLOCS ASEAN, CIS,EU,LAIA,NAFTA, OPEC, SAFTA CONCERNS RELATED TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE
1. Regional specialization
2. Higher level of production
3. Better standard of living
4. World wide availability of goods and services
5. Equalization of prices and wages
6. Diffusion of knowledge and culture
7. Leads to dependence
8. Uneven level of development
9. Exploitation
10. Commercial revelry leads to wars
11. Affect life
12. Production and use of resource raised
13. Depletion of resources
14. More pollution
 

GATE WAYS OF INTRNATIONAL TRADE PORTS
1. Provide facilities to cargo and passenger
2. Provide docking, loading unloading, storage facilities for cargo
3. Maintain navigable channels
4. Arrange tugs and barges, provide labor managerial services
5. The quantity of cargo handled by the port is an indicator of level of development of its hinter land

TYPES OF PORT BASED ONCARGO HANDLED
1. Industrial ports

2. Commercial ports

3. Comprehensive

BASED ON LOCATION
1. Inland ports

2.outports

BASED ON SPECIALISED FUNCTION
1. Oil ports

2. Ports of call

3. Packet station

4.Entre pot ports

5. Naval ports

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