Chapter Notes - Manufacturing Industries, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

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Humanities/Arts : Chapter Notes - Manufacturing Industries, Class 12, Geography | EduRev Notes

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MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES

A. ON THE BASIS OF SIZE, CAPITAL-LABOR FORCE
1. Large, 2. Medium 3.small 4. Cottage

B. ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP
1. Public 2. private 3. Joint 4.cooperative

C. ON THE BASIS OF PRODUCT
1. Basic
2. Capital
3. Intermediate
4. Consumer industries

D. ON THE BASIS OF RAW MATERIALS
1. Agro-based
2. Forest
3. Mineral
4. Industrially processed

E. NATURE OF PRODUCT
1. Metallurgical
2. Mechanical
3. Chemical
4. Textile
5. Food processing
6. electricity generation
7. Electronics
8. Communication

LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES 

LOCATIONAL FACTORS
1. Raw materials
2. Power
3. Transport
4. Labour
5. Historical factors
6. Industrial policy

MAJOR INDUSTRIES IRON STEEL

INDUSTRIES RAW MATERIALS: iron ore, coking coal limestone, dolomite, manganese, fire clay

TYPES OF IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES
1. Integrated steel plants
2. mini steel plants
3. Rolling Mills
4. Ancillary industries

INTEGRATED STEEL PLANTS TISCO

  • 250km from Kolkata
  • Water – Subarnarekha Kharki rivers
  • Naomundi and Badampahar- iron ore
  • Coal – Joda mines from Orissa
  • Coking coal – Jharia


IISCO

  • Three factories at Hirapur, Kulti, and Burnpur
  • Coal- Ranigunj, Jharia Ramgarh
  • Iron ore- Sighbhum
  • Water_ Barker
  • Transport Kolkata Asansol railway line

 

VISL

  •  Also called Mysore Iron and steel co.ltd
  • Iron ore- Kemangundi
  • Limestone manganese- local
  • Charcoal used from the forest/ hydal power from jog falls
  • Water –Bhadravati
  • Produces specialized steels

ROURKELA

  • Collaboration with Germany
  • Located nearby raw materials
  • Coal-Jharia iron ore- Sundargarh
  • Power- Hirakud water –Koel

BHILAI

  • Russian collaboration
  • Iron ore – Dalli Rajhara
  • Coal- Korea
  • Water-Tandula Dam
  • Power –Korba
  • Port – Vizag

DURGAPUR

  • Collaboration with the UK
  • Coal –Raniganj
  • Iron –Naomundi
  • Power-DVC

BOKARO

  • Russian collaboration
  • Iron ore –Rourkela
  • Water& power –DVC


THE COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
1. One of the traditional industries in India
2. India is famous for muslin, calicos chintz

ADVANTAGES AVAILABLE FOR COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRIES
1. Cotton cloth is most comfortable in a tropical climate
2. Large area under cotton cultivation
3. Availability of abundant skilled labor

ADVANTAGES OF COTTON TEXTILES IN MUMBAI
1. Close to cotton growing areas
2. Mumbai port facility
3. Provide capital for industries
4. Availability of cheap labor
5. Machines can be imported

SECTORS OF COTTON TEXTILES

  • Organized sector
  • Integrated textiles
  • Decentralized sectors
  • It includes power looms and handlooms
  • Organized sector production declined from 81% to 6%
  • decentralized sector produces 59% power looms and 19% handlooms
  • COTTON IS NOT WEIGHT losing MATERIAL

INFLUENCING FACTORS ARE
1. Power
2. Labour
3. Capital
4.market

AT PRESET INDUSTRIES ARE LOCATED AT THE MARKET SWADESI MOVEMET BROUGHT A MAJOR IMPETUS TO THE INDUSTRY BOYCOTTING BRITISH GOOD AFTER 1921
1. With the development of railway cotton mills developed
2. In south India, they are established in Coimbatore, Madurai Bangalore
3. In central India Nagpur, Indore Sholapur Vadodara
4. Cotton mills at Kanpur based on local investment
5. Cotton mills at Kolkata due to port facilities
6. Development of hydel power also help to industry
7. Lower labor costs help to locate mills at Ujjain Bharuch Coimbatore Tirunelveli away from cotton-producing areas

OTHER FACTORS ARE

  • Market, cheap labor, availability of power
  • Major centers Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore, Ujjain
  • They are located nearby raw material leading producing states.
  • Tamil Nadu has the largest no of mills that produce yarn rather than cloth
  • Coimbatore has emerged as an important center in the south in KK mills are located near cotton-producing areas. Davanger, Hubli, Bellary Mysore, Bangalore,
  • Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Warangal, Guntur
  • Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur is the largest, Modinagar, Hathras, Saharanpur, Agra, Lucknow
  • West Bengal; Hugli, Howrah, SeramPur, Kolkata
  • Cotton production increased five times from 1950 to 2000

PROBLEMS OF COTTON MILLS

1. Competition from synthetic fiber
2. The high cost of production
3. Erratic power supply
4. Frequent strikes, lockouts
5. Climatic changes decrease production

SUGAR INDUSTRY 

1. Most important industry
2.india is the largest producer of sugarcane
3.8% of sugar production in India
4. Khandasari, jaggery also produced in India
5.provide 4 lakh person employment
6.it is a seasonal industry
7.at present there are 506 mills with the production of 17699 lakh tones

LOCATION OF SUGAR INDUSTRY
1. It is a weight loss industry crop
2. The ratio is 9-12 %
3. Sucrose content decrease soon after harvesting
4. Should be harvested before 24 hours
5. Ms is the leading producer
6. 1/3 of production comes from ms
7. There are 119 mills in the state
8. They extend from Manmad to Kolhapur
9. There are 87 mills in cooperative section
Up is the second largest producer of cotton textiles There are two belts
1. Ganga-Yamuna Doab
2. Tarai region
Other states are TN, KK, AP

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

  • In 1960 demand for organic chemicals increased
  • Petroleum refining industry expanded
  • Items derived from petroleum are raw materials for other industries
  • They are called petrochemical industries


SUBGROUPS OF PETROCHEMICALS

1.POLYMERS
2.SYNTHETIC FIBRE
3. ELASTOMERS
4. SURFACTANT INTERMEDIATE

Mumbai is a hub of petrochemical industry Cracker units are located at Auriya Jamnagar, Gandhi Nagar, Hajira Nagothane Ratnagiri Haldia Vizak Organizations working under petrochemicals

INDIAN PETROCHEMICAL CORPORATION LIMITED
1. It is the public sector
2. Produce polymers, chemicals fiber, fiber intermediates

PETROFILS COOERATIVE LIMITED

1.it is the joint venture of govt. And weavers cooperative society

2.produces polyesters nylon chips Located at Vadodara Naldhari in Gujarat

CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF PLASTIC ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Provide training for engineers
Polymers are made from ethylene & propylene Polymers are used in the plastic industry Plastic is converted into sheets of power resin and pellets and then used in the plastic industry

ADVANTAGES:
1. Strength
2 flexible
2. Water and chemical resistance
3. Low price

NATIONAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRIES LIMITED 

Established in private sector in 1961 First naphtha-based chemical industry at Mumbai Center of plastic materials Mumbai, Mettur, Pimpri Rishra They are mostly small scale sector Uses recycled plastics Uses of plastic

1. TO MAKE FABRICS
 USES

1. Strength 2. Durability 3. Washability 4. Resistant to water 5. Shrinking 6. Easy to maintain
 

Centers of nylon and polyester: Kota, Pimpri, Mumbai, Modinagar, Pune Acrylic staple fiber manufactured at Kota Vadodara The main problem of plastic is it is nonbiodegradable

KOWLEDGE BASED INDUSTRY

1. Brought revolution in the industry
2. Brought new economic and social environment
3. Outsourcing is an example
4. Fastest growing industry
5. Software export is expanding every day
6. It surpassed other industries
7. It accounts 2% of GDP
8. Produce quality products
9. MNCs are producing software production
 

LPG
1. IT IS NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY
 OBJECTIVES 

1.to build on the gains already made
2. Correct the distortions
3.maintain sustained growth
4. Gainful employment
5. Attain international competitiveness

MEASURES INITIATED
1. Abolishing industrial licensing
2. Free entry of foreign technology
3. Foreign investment policy
4. Access t capital market
5. Open trade
6. Abolition of phased manufacturing
7. Liberalized industrial location programme

DIMENSIONS OF NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY
1. Industrial licensing has been canceled to expect 1. Security 2. Strategic. 3.environmental concerns
2. Public sectors reduced from17to 3
3. Atomic energy & railways kept under government
4. Govt. offered shareholdings to financial institutions, public workers
5. No private permission is required to invest in de-licensing sector
6. FDI is the supplement of domestic investment
7. FDI provide technological innovation
8. Access to global managerial skills optimum use of nature man resources
9. Liberalized to attract MNS and private sector
10. mining and communications high way construction thrown to private
11. Globalization means integrating the national economy with the world economy
12. Goods, services capital-labor resources can move freely from one nation to another

STEPS
1. Opening of economy to FDI by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economic activity
2. Removing restrictions an obstacles to the entry o multinational company in India
3. Allowing Indian companies to collaborative other countries
4. Carry out massive import
5. Opting exchange rate adjustments to export

PROBLEMS IN NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY
1. Major share went to core industries
2. Infract rue was untouched
3. Gap between developed and developing increased
4. major share went to developed states
5. 23%ms 17% guj7% AP 6% TN&UP 8%
N.E states only 1%

INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

1.number of industrial units 2. The number of industrial workers 3. Quantity of power used 4.output 5.value added by manufacturing

MUMBAI PUNE REGION
1. Extended from Mumbai to Sholapur
2. Connect Kolaba Ahmednagar, Satara Single Jalgaon

Favorable FACTORS
1. Cotton hinterland
2. Moist climate
3. The opening of the Suez canal
4. Mumbai port facility
5. Hydel power from western Ghats
6. The opening of Mumbai high
7. The nuclear power plant at Tarapur
8. Industries:
Engineering goods, oil refineries, petrochemicals, leather goods, synthetic, plastic, drugs, fertilizers

HUGLI INDUSTRIAL REGION

ADVANTAGES 

1.extend from Bansberia to Birlanagar
2. The opening of Hugli port
3.well connected with railways
4. Development of tea plantation, jute cultivation
5.presence of coal fields, iron mines DVC
6. Cheap labor from up &Bihar
7. industries: jute, paper, textiles, electrical, fertilizers Hindustan motors, diesel locomotives at Chittaranjan. Oil refinery at Haldia

BANGALORE –CHENNAI REGION
1. Extend from Bangalore to Madurai
2. Power from Pykara Hydel power
3. Industries: cotton textile, eng. goods, HAL, HMT, at Bangalore, rubber industry, petroleum oil refinery at Mumbai

GUJARAT INDUSTRIAL REGION
1. Extend from Ahmedabad to Surat
2. Large cotton growing area
3. Nearness to market
4. Oil fields at Ankaleswar Vadodara Jamnagar
5. Kandla port facility
6. Koyali oil refinery
7. Kakrapara nuclear plant

CHOTA NAGPUR INDUSTRIAL REGION
1. Extend from Jharkhand To Orissa
2. Heavy metallurgical industries
3. Coal at DVC
4. Iron ore, limestone coalfields
5. Steel plants at Jamshed Pur, Burnpur Kulti Durgapur, Bokaro, Rourkela
6. Hydel. Thermal power from DVC
7. Labor from Bihar, Bengal
8. Industries: engineering, machine tools, fertilizers, cement paper locomotives
9. Places are Ranchi, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh Jamshedpur

VIZAK GUNTUR INDUSTRIAL REGION

1 extend from Vizak
2. To Kurnool
3. Port facility from Vizak, Machilipatnam
4. Dev. Agriculture, hinterland mineral
5. Godavari coal fields, shipbuilding at Vizak. Petroleum oil refinery. Lead-zinc steel industry at Vizak

GURGAON-DELHI MEERUT REGION 

1.fast growth,
2. Away from minerals
3.light industries
4. Electrical, woolen textiles, hosiery goods, sugar mills, cycle agriculture implements Software, glass leather goods

KOLLAM –THIRUVANANTHA PURAM
1. Extend from Trivandrum to Alappuzha
2. Plantation agriculture,
3. Hydel power
4. No minerals
5. Ag. Product processing
6. Cotton textiles, sugar, rubber, matchbox glass fish based industries food processing
7. Oil refinery at Cochin

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